Making Networking Work for You

It’s not enough to simply send out your resume and hope for offers to come your way. In today’s job market, knowing someone could be the best way to get your foot in the door. The key is to connect with contacts who are relevant to your industry—and the type of career you’re pursuing. Luckily, there are plenty of solid strategies to help you cultivate a professional network and open up potential career opportunities.

When to Start Networking

The sooner you start networking, the better. In fact, a good time to take advantage of networking opportunities is while you’re still in school. That’s because you are likely surrounded by large pools of people who are interested in pursuing careers in related fields and by professors who could be invaluable sources for building new professional contacts.

In addition, if your school offers clubs or groups related to your industry of choice, joining one or more of them might be a great way to practice your business networking skills. Another option is to volunteer or intern at a company that’s relevant to your career goals—you could make connections with people in your industry who might eventually lead you to a job opportunity once you graduate.

How to network

The first step to networking successfully almost always begins with striking up conversations with strangers. There’s no getting around it. Often the hardest part is making that first contact—an easy way to do that is to jump in and introducing yourself. Then, it’s time to find common ground and learn more about the person by asking questions. You’d be surprised to find how much people enjoy talking about themselves if you give them the chance!

However, it’s not enough to just meet new people. You have to maintain relationships if you’re looking to build potential resources for future employment searches.

Networking Tips

10 important networking tips

Now that you’re more familiar with how to network, it’s time to explore some strategies to become more effective at it. Some of these tips may seem obvious, but it’s easy to throw them by the wayside when you’re actually in conversation.

1. Be yourself

Many people can spot a phony, so be authentic. Show your true self rather than trying to put on a front to impress others. And don’t be afraid to add some humor into the conversation to lighten things up.

2. Be aware of your body language

It’s important that you appear open and confident in your body language. That means keeping your arms uncrossed, making direct eye contact, and, of course, giving off positive vibes with a genuine smile.

3. Be an active listener

Being a good listener entails really paying attention to what people are saying rather than just thinking about how you might respond. A good tip to try is to repeat the other person’s point in your own words. This shows that you are listening and that you understand what they are saying.

4. Never dismiss anyone as “unimportant”

A big mistake people often make is to write off others before getting to know them. You never know who could introduce you to your next boss—or be your next boss.

5. Connect the dots

A huge part of being a successful networker is to help other people connect, even if there’s nothing that is obviously in it for you. It’s important to be a giver and not a taker. In other words, leave your personal agenda at the door. If you go into conversations only thinking about what you might get from the other person, you’re doomed to fail.

6. Ask for introductions

One of the best ways to connect with important people is to be introduced by someone that they already trust—so don’t be afraid to ask. You have nothing to lose!

7. Follow up without being pushy

It’s always a good idea to follow up with a timely email—or even a chat on the phone. Just be wary of coming off as too desperate if you aren’t able to connect initially. Give the person time to respond on their own terms.

8. Stay connected

If you get a referral from one of your contacts, make sure to keep in touch about how the new connection is going. This could show your appreciation for the introduction typically help make it more likely that the referrals will continue.

9. Build a strong online presence

Tapping into online networking resources is pretty much a must in this digital age. Construct a professional and comprehensive LinkedIn profile with a compelling headline and a high-quality profile picture. Don’t just passively wait for others to see your profile—post industry-relevant content on your LinkedIn feed, engage with other’s content, participate in LinkedIn groups, and make sure to keep your profile up to date.

Consider engaging in other social media platforms as well. There are hundreds of them out there, and some are particularly relevant to specific industries. For example, platforms such as Instagram, Behance, Pinterest, or Tumblr could be particularly beneficial for those in the visual arts. Software developers might check out Stack Overflow or Find Nerd.

10. Be aware of your digital image

Review all your current social media profiles to ensure they don’t include anything inappropriate or offensive—some employers check social media sites as part of their screening process. Also, Google yourself frequently to see the kinds of results that are generated.

It’s understandable that putting yourself out there might feel intimidating. But building both your professional and social contacts could be a great way to expose yourself to people who could help further your career ambitions. Being comfortable and confident in your interactions with others is also a skill that could take you far in business, regardless of whether or not you’re looking for new job opportunities. So get yourself out there and remember to pay it forward!

 

Ready to go back to work? A 7-Step Plan for Stay at Home Moms

Stay at Home Moms

Making the decision to go back to work could be an exciting—and scary—prospect for stay at home moms. There may be many things to consider, such as your schedule, childcare options, and whether or not you have support systems in place to make things work. Your biggest hurdle might be a lack of confidence in your skills and abilities, but keep in mind that in your role as a mom you work hard every day – and are building skills that could be applied in the workforce!

Whether you’ve been a stay at home mom for one year or ten, there are actionable steps you could take now to increase your chances of successfully returning to your career. Follow our 7-step plan to help prepare you for your comeback in the career world!

7 Steps for Stay At Home Moms

1. Assess and update your skills

It’s time to get real and ask yourself some questions. What are your interests? Where are your strengths? What’s your relevant experience in your desired field? One great way to get yourself updated on the current job market could be to look at job descriptions in your areas of interest and pay attention to the desired qualifications. With the rapidly changing advancements and technologies across almost every industry, realistically, you’ll probably need to brush up on your skills. And that’s! It’s just a matter of figuring out an effective way to do that—whether it be taking a class, getting certified, or earning a degree.

You might also consult the Occupational Outlook Handbook from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). You’ll find job descriptions for hundreds of jobs, as well as typical salaries and job projections.

2. Spread the word

One way of increasing your chances of getting back to work might be to let people know you’re looking. That means updating your social media profiles and making everyone aware of your job search. If you’re not already on LinkedIn, it’s time to create a profile ASAP. Once you’re set up, ask friends and past co-workers or bosses to write recommendations for you, and—whenever possible—reach out and ask for introductions to people at companies you’re interested in. You could also join online professional groups to help build your contact list. And don’t discount more traditional forms of networking, such as reaching out to your contacts—including other stay at home moms—by phone or attending networking events. The important thing is to get out there, because you never know who you might meet!

3. Update your resume

It’s time for the task that strikes fear in the heart of many people—updating your resume. But it doesn’t have to be scary! Creating an effective resume could be critical if you want to sell yourself to potential employers. Start by figuring out how you might fill in your employment gap with relevant skills and experience you’ve acquired during your time as a stay at home mom.

A good way to do that may be to create a “functional resume” focusing on your skills and abilities, rather than simply your chronological work history. For example, were you a fundraising superstar for your child’s school? Did you serve as a member of the PTA or head of a Board? Or maybe you are involved in local politics or committees. These are activities that you could include on your resume under “relevant experience.” Just make sure you outline your responsibilities as they relate to your field. And to that point, it’s usually a good idea to customize your resume to the specific job you’re applying for, whenever possible.

4. Consider volunteering

It may seem counterintuitive to focus on volunteering when your main goal is getting back to work. However, putting in the effort to volunteer in your industry could be a great way to get your foot in the door, and it may pay off in the long run. That’s because volunteering could provide the opportunity to refresh your experience and gain new skills in your field. It shows that you are motivated and proactive,; and it could help you build relevant contacts who may serve as references, introduce you to potential job opportunities, or even decide to bring you on with the company. We know that you’re probably busy balancing your responsibilities at home with your job search, but if you could make the time, you’ve got nothing to lose.

5. Set realistic salary goals

Part of the planning process for going back to work involves figuring out what your desired salary range. This may be tough, especially if you’ve been out of the workforce for a long time. It could also be tempting to underestimate what you’re worth, so try not to fall into that trap. Consider your family’s budget—including childcare costs—and what you realistically need to earn to keep things afloat. To help give you an idea of what people in your desired occupations are earning you could consult the Bureau of Labor Statics (BLS) to find median salaries as well as even job projection data. Remember that you may have to take less money than you’d like to get the position you want, but that doesn’t mean you couldn’t earn more once you’ve built up your experience.

6. Practice interviewing

What’s one of the best ways to get good at interviewing? Practice, practice, practice! It’s time to enlist the help of your friends and family, to pose as potential employers in mock-up interviews. The more you rehearse, the more comfortable—and confident—you might be once it’s time for the real thing. To get you started, here are some sample questions to think about:

  • Why do you think you’re ready to go back to work now?
  • What’s a recent difficult problem you’ve faced, and how did you handle it?
  • Do you prefer to work alone or with others?
  • Can you describe your ideal boss?
  • What makes you a good fit for this position?
  • Where do you see yourself in five years?

One more thing to remember when you land an interview is to do your research beforehand. You should be very familiar with who the company is, what they do, and who they serve. And be ready with some questions of your own to show that you’re prepared and are taking the position seriously.

7. Work with a professional

Sometimes it just makes sense to go with an expert. Whether you need help re-working your resume and cover letter, or finding the right type of job for your skills and experience, there’s likely a professional out there who could help you out. You may be surprised to find how many people make a career out of helping others get their dream job. So, there’s no reason to feel hesitant about hiring a career coach or resume writer. Just make sure you do your research, so you get someone who’s been well- vetted by others.

Another avenue to consider is working with a recruiter, whose job it is to place the people with a company that could be a good fit. What you’ll likely need to do is meet with the recruiter (with your updated resume!) and go over your skills, experience, and goals so that they could keep you in mind when relevant positions come up.

Conclusion

Going back to work could be a major life change, and you should be proud that you’re taking that leap. In addition to following the seven steps we outlined above, you could help make the transition more seamless by focusing on how you might enhance your skills and qualifications to attract potential employers. One great way to boost your credentials could be to further your education by pursuing a degree. And when you study online, you’ll typically have the flexibility to do it on your own time—and from the comfort of your home.

 

The Sexiest Careers for Men and Women

In 2016, the dating app Tinder published a list of the “sexiest careers” for both men and women. A second list was released in 2018. Their methodology was based on swipes—which careers were right-swiped (chosen) the most by men and women.

Since then, other reports have come out about the careers men and women find most desirable in the opposite sex. These were typically based on actual surveys.

We looked at Tinder’s two lists and three fairly current surveys to determine which careers were deemed sexiest across all of the lists. And…drum roll…here are the results!

Careers Men Find Most Desirable in Women

There were two careers that appeared in all five lists. The first may not surprise you, based on common stereotypes. Regarding the second—it’s nice to see teachers being appreciated!

  • Nurse
  • Teacher (middle school was specified on two lists)

A number of careers appeared on three lists. Several more stereotypes with the flight attendant and secretary. But some men DO appreciate brains as well!

  • Flight Attendant
  • Waitress
  • Bartender
  • Lawyer
  • Secretary
Tinder's Sexiest Careers Infographic

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Careers Women Find Most Desirable in Men

Three careers appeared on all five lists. Firefighter? What woman doesn’t dream of firefighters! They bravely risk their lives and are usually in good shape to boot. Sexy calendars have been made of them, after all. The other two professions are prestigious and powerful. (And, to be realistic, salary might also be a driving factor for these choices.)

  • Firefighter
  • Lawyer
  • Doctor (4 doctors and one Physician Assistant)

Two careers appeared on four of the lists, and they are as different as can be. Interestingly, I found one list that included the least desired jobs, and Police Officer was on it. Go figure…

  • Police Officer
  • Founder/Entrepreneur (one list specified CEO, but CEOs could also be founders and entrepreneurs)

And the following careers appeared on three of the lists. Once again, quite a range.

  • Pilot
  • Engineer
  • Builder/Construction   
  • Paramedic

Additional Observations

Do men and women want the same thing?

For the most part, women and men wanted different things in their partner. The only career that appeared on three or more lists for both men and women was Lawyer. (Perhaps all those bad lawyer jokes are misguided!) Teacher appeared on two of the lists for men and five of the lists for women. Beyond those two careers, however, there is no significant overlap.

What types of careers were women attracted to?

The careers they chose seem to be split between brawn and brains. Women also tend to like men in powerful careers, or careers which involve taking charge. Money could be a driving factor for some of the careers they chose—the median annual salary for the top nine careers women chose was about $97,000.

What types of careers were men attracted to?

Big salaries don’t seem to matter as much to men. While the median annual salary of the top 9 careers that women chose is about $97,000, for men’s choices it is about $68,000. Beyond that, men seem to be attracted to careers that involve taking care of and nurturing others. Powerful women in general might be a turnoff for them—only one occupation, Lawyer, is typically held by powerful women.

Some interesting or unexpected careers that women chose:

There were a number of unusual careers that popped up on women’s lists. For example, one list included Faith Leader and Father! ( “Father” isn’t actually a career, but it’s a sweet thought.) Two lists included Electrician, and another, Farmer.

Some interesting or unexpected careers that men chose:

Men tended to be a little more traditional in their preferences. However, I was somewhat surprised at two of the careers they chose—Dentist and IT Worker. I mean, who likes dentists? And IT Worker might conjure up a picture of a nerdy woman wearing glasses.

Career Information

Now that you have an idea of what career you should pursue to be considered sexy by the opposite sex, here is some information about them, including average salaries and education requirements. (Salary figures are from 2022.)

Lawyer


Median Annual Salary: $135,7401

Typical Education Requirements: Undergrad degree + three years of law school

Registered Nurse


Median Annual Salary: $81,220

Typical Education Requirements: Bachelor’s degree, associate degree, or a diploma from an approved nursing program

Middle School Teacher


Median Annual Salary: $61,810

Typical Education Requirements: Bachelor’s degree

Firefighter


Median Annual Salary: $51,680

Typical Education Requirements: HS diploma and training in emergency medical services

Doctor


Median Annual Salary: $229,300

Typical Education Requirements: Bachelor’s degree + degree from medical school

Physician Assistant


Median Annual Salary: $126,010

Typical Education Requirements: Bachelor’s degree + experience in patient care

Police Officer/Detective


Median Annual Salary: $69,160

Typical Education Requirements: HS diploma, bachelor’s degree, graduation from training academy

Top Executive


Median Annual Salary: $100,090

Typical Education Requirements: Bachelor’s degree and experience

 

Sources

1https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/lawyers.htm#tab-12https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/lawyers.htm#tab-43https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm#tab-14https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm#tab-45https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/middle-school-teachers.htm#tab-16https://www.bls.gov/ooh/education-training-and-library/middle-school-teachers.htm#tab-47https://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/flight-attendants.htm#tab-18https://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/flight-attendants.htm#tab-49https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/firefighters.htm#tab-110https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/firefighters.htm#tab-411https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm#tab-112https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm#tab-413https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physician-assistants.htm#tab-114https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physician-assistants.htm#tab-415https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm#tab-116https://www.bls.gov/ooh/protective-service/police-and-detectives.htm#tab-417https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/top-executives.htm#tab-118https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/top-executives.htm#tab-4

Wait—That’s a Real Job?! 17 of the Weirdest Jobs Out There

What types of people tend to go for the weirdest jobs?

People who go after out-of-the box jobs may be described as:

  • Adventurous
  • Open
  • Extroverted
  • Confident
  • Brave
  • Insane!

We dug up 17 of the weirdest jobs out there. . . .

  1. Toques (Electro-shockers): In Mexico, shocking drunk people is a job! Why? Some imbibers want to get a better buzz on—others think it sobers them up.
  2. Cuddle professional: Get paid to have platonic snuggle sessions with lonely people.
  3. Professional Mourner: The perfect job for the morbid folks or aspiring actors who can tear up on command at funerals.
  4. Chicken Sexer: How does squeezing a baby chick until it pees and then examining its genitalia sound? Pass?
  5. Professional Ear Cleaners: This is a traditional art in India—and involves exactly what the name suggests.
  6. Worm Picker: This involves some bright, early mornings of picking and packing the best worms for fisherman.
  7. Pet Food Tester: If you have a discerning palate and the desire to chew dog food, this job is for you!
  8. Body Farm Caretaker: Scientists hire people to comb for maggots on dead bodies. Fun!
  9. Roadkill Cleaner: This doesn’t really require explanation, but some cleaners even take home the corpses. For what, we didn’t ask….
  10. Vomit Collector: Somebody has to clean the vomit off amusement park rides. It could be you!
  11. Breath Odor Evaluator: Use your nose to determine when gum or toothpaste works—and unfortunately, when it doesn’t.
  12. Flatulence Smell Reducer: Help underwear companies keep the fart smell contained. For real.
  13. Portable Toilet Cleaners: If you’ve ever had to use a Porta-Potty, you’re probably not eager to send in your application.
  14. Gross Stunt Tester: Someone has to figure out which stunts create the best gross-out factor for reality shows. Bon appetit!
  15. Head Lice Technician: This involves lice, a comb, a strong stomach, and a lot of patience.
  16. Diaper Service Worker: This dirty job requires you to clean cloth diapers. Enough said.
  17. Bacon Critic: Hey, there are actually some amazing, delicious non-traditional jobs out there!
Weirdest Jobs 2023

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Why do people pursue these wacky jobs?

There may be many reasons to pursue an “alternative” career:

  • Possibly allowed to make your own rules
  • Escaping the boring
  • Being paid to be weird
  • Enjoying the macabre
  • Being an animal lover (or hater)
  • Following your (strange) dreams
  • Bragging rights!

What is a non-traditional job?

There are two ways to look at non-traditional jobs:

  1. It’s a career where one sex comprises 25% or less of the workforce. For women, an example is a taxi driver or firefighter. For men, childcare workers and dental hygienists are non-traditional jobs.1
  2. An off-the-wall, crazy role that you would never imagine is actually a real job!

Are there non-traditional jobs in traditional fields?

These aren’t quite as crazy as the ones above, but they do exist!

Food

  • Fortune cookie writer
  • Egg peeler
  • Gum chewer

Accounting

  • Forensic accountant
  • Sports accountant
  • Entertainment accountant

Healthcare

  • Medical illustrator
  • Space psychologist
  • Wound-care specialist

Travel

  • Dog surfing coach
  • Manners police
  • Sewer guide

Teaching

  • Leadership coach
  • Historical consultant
  • Sports coach

Psychology

  • Traffic psychologist
  • Aviation psychologist
  • Art therapist

Marketing

  • Meme manager
  • Simplicity engineer
  • Data storyteller

Science

  • Firework designer
  • Snake milker
  • Sexologist

Technology

  • Ethical hacker
  • Crowdfunding specialist
  • Video game tester

Where would someone search to find these jobs?

A good place to start may be to search for “crazy” or “cool” jobs in your field. Once you find out what’s out there, you could seek out companies that employ these roles. Check out professional organizations, search company websites, investigate industry social media sites, and do some research on job boards and LinkedIn.

 

Sources

[i]dol.gov/wb/stats/nontraditional_occupations.htm | [ii]thrillist.com/travel/nation/the-15-weirdest-jobs-in-the-world | [iii]neweurope.eu/article/top-ten-weirdest-jobs-world | list25.com/25-of-the-weirdest-jobs-on-earth | lolwot.com/20-of-the-most-bizarre-jobs-people-have-around-the-world | [iv]scoopwhoop.com/inothernews/weird-jobs-of-the-world | [v]thefiscaltimes.com/Articles/2011/08/25/10-Dirty-Jobs-That-Nobody-Wants | [vi]extracrispy.com/culture/136/now-hiring-extra-crispy-is-looking-for-a-bacon-critic | [vii]jobs.net/article/cb-196-talent-network-restaurant-9-unusually-weird-jobs-in-the-food-industry | [viii]roberthalf.com/accountemps/job-seekers/career-center/career-advice-and-job-search-tips/beyond-the-traditional-5-unusual-types-of-accounting-jobs | [ix]healthline.com/health-news/weird-jobs-in-the-medical-field-you-never-thought-about-123015#2 | [x]brazen.com/blog/archive/job-search/beyond-the-blackboard-8-unusual-and-in-demand-teaching-careers | [xi]verywell.com/cool-psychology-jobs-2794938 | [xii]careerprofiles.com/blog/hiring-innovative-talent/6-crazy-new-titles-for-marketers-and-what-they-mean | [xiii]livescience.com/37284-weirdest-science-jobs.html | [xiv]complex.com/pop-culture/2014/06/15-weird-tech-jobs-you-never-knew-existed-but-wish-you-had

10 Top-Paying Careers Requiring a Bachelor’s Degree

 

Looking to make a career move? Earning a bachelor’s degree could help open doors to high-paying professions. In fact, the annual median salary for bachelor’s degree holders is over $30,000 more than the median salary of those with just a high school diploma, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). In this article, we rounded up ten top-paying professions that typically require a bachelor’s degree at the entry level. Learn more about what each career path is all about—and decide if one could be perfect for you!

Top-Paying Careers Requiring a Bachelor’s Degree

In this article, we list 10 top-paying careers that typically require an bachelor’s degree at the entry level, as specified by the BLS.

1 Computer and information systems managers


What they do

Computer and information systems managers are responsible for computer-related activities in an organization. Chief information officers (CIOs) and chief technology officers (CTOs) are types of computer and information systems managers that lead and direct their organization’s technology strategy, including identifying new technology that could be beneficial. IT security managers oversee network and data security to keep information safe. And IT directors are typically in charge of the IT department, including hiring staff, managing the budget, and more

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in computer and information technology or a related field

Median annual salary, 2023:

$169,510 per year

Projected employment, 2032

643,300

2 Architectural and engineering managers


What they do

Architectural and engineering managers plan and supervise architecture and engineering projects. They may do research to understand a project’s scope, create detailed plans and budgets, hire and supervise staff, and make production schedules, among other duties. These professionals not only need to understand the ins and outs of managing teams and projects to keep jobs on track, but they also need knowledge of architecture and engineering to inform their work.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in engineering or architecture

Median annual salary, 2023:

$165,370 per year

Projected employment, 2032

209,700

3 Airline and commercial pilots


What they do

Pilots fly and navigate aircraft, including airplanes and helicopters. Airline pilots usually work for airlines that carry passengers and cargo on a set schedule, while commercial pilots typically perform charter flights, crop dusting, and other unscheduled activities. Both kinds of pilot are responsible for duties such as checking the condition of the aircraft, communicating with air traffic control, and monitoring aircraft systems throughout the flight to ensure a safe journey.   

Typical entry-level education

A bachelor’s degree in any field; flight training

Median annual salary, 2023:

$171,210 per year

Projected employment, 2032

148,100

4 Natural sciences managers


What they do

Natural sciences managers typically oversee the work of scientists within an organization or laboratory. For instance, they may manage chemists, physicists, or biologists. Natural sciences managers often oversee activities such as research and development, testing, quality control, and production. Their focus could vary depending on the type of organization they work for. For instance, they may manage projects related to advancing scientific knowledge or developing a new kind of product.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree or higher in a scientific discipline

Median annual salary, 2023:

$157,740 per year

Projected employment, 2032

90,500

5 Financial managers


What they do

Financial managers help organizations reach their financial goals. They do this through a variety of activities, from preparing financial statements and forecasts to analyzing market trends to find opportunities. There are many kinds of financial manager, each handling different aspects of a company’s finances. For instance, cash managers control the flow of money in a firm. Treasurers direct their organization’s budget. And controllers are typically in charge of preparing financial reports and may oversee their organization’s audit, accounting, and budget departments.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in business, economics, or a related field

Median annual salary, 2023:

$156,100 per year

Projected employment, 2032

919,200

6 Advertising, promotions, and marketing managers


What they do

Advertising, promotions, and marketing managers are responsible for creating interest in products and services. This involves activities such as planning and budgeting campaigns, developing promotional strategies, and managing staff such as creative teams. Managers may use market research to better understand their potential customers as well as the competition. They may also work directly with clients to negotiate contracts and make recommendations for how to position new products, reach more customers, and more.   

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in marketing or a related field

Median annual salary, 2022:

$156,580 per year

Projected employment, 2032

413,300

7 Computer hardware engineers


What they do

These professionals design and develop computer hardware, from entire computer systems to components such as circuit boards, processors, and routers. This hardware is essential for many modern devices, including mobile phones, cars, and home appliances. Besides designing systems and components, computer hardware engineers may oversee the manufacturing process and test the hardware to make sure it works as intended. Since hardware and software are typically designed to work together, computer hardware engineers may work closely with software developers.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in computer engineering or a related field

Median annual salary, 2023:

$138,080 per year

Projected employment, 2032

81,600

8 Petroleum engineers


What they do

Petroleum engineers devise methods for extracting oil and gas from the earth. Because oil and gas deposits are found in underground rock formations, engineers must develop ways to access those deposits by drilling. They may design drilling equipment, plan how best to extract the oil and gas, and monitor operations. Several kinds of petroleum engineers may be involved in this process. For instance, drilling engineers figure out the optimal way to drill for oil and gas, while production engineers oversee the wells once drilling is completed.  

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in petroleum engineering or a related field

Median annual salary, 2023:

$135,690 per year

Projected employment, 2032

21,900

9 Database administrators and architects


What they do

Database administrators and architects build or manage systems to store data and keep it secure. They may design and build databases, regularly back up data, and make sure users can access the information they need. Typically, database architects are responsible for designing and building new databases, while database administrators monitor database operations for performance as well as provide support to users. However, these roles may have overlapping duties.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in computer and information technology or a related field.

Median annual salary, 2023:

$117,450 per year

Projected employment, 2032

161,600

10 Top executives


What they do

Top executives keep organizations running smoothly. They typically set goals for the organization as well as plan strategies and lead teams to ensure these goals are met. Many types of organizations employ top executives—from companies to governments to schools. For instance, Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) usually provide overall leadership and direction for companies and other types of organizations. General and operations managers may handle a variety of administrative and management tasks. And school superintendents oversee school districts, handle budgets, and help keep student achievement on track.

Typical entry-level education

Bachelor’s degree in an area related to their work

Median annual salary, 2023:

$103,840 

Projected employment, 2032

3,912,000

 

Source: https://www.bls.gov/

Based on national data, not school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary. Accessed 8/9/2023. 

 

Exploring Undergraduate Certificates: A Pathway to Focused Learning and Career Enhancement

Undergraduate students are increasingly earning competency certificates to develop proficiency in a field. In fact, certificates are the fastest growing post-secondary credential. That’s in comparison to associate’s and bachelor’s degree programs which typically cost students more in time, money, and commitment.

Certificates are designed for today’s students with targeted education and skill enhancement at an affordable and faster rate than many degree programs. They may also boost a student or employee’s resume with industry specific training to help them compete in the job market. For this reason, many undergraduate students pursue certificates as a skill step ladder. Sometimes this can be done in conjunction with a degree program and other times in lieu of one.

Understanding Undergraduate Certificates

These programs include short term and focused learning and skills attainment for earning a certificate. Certificates provide verification for the required work to show mastery of a specific subject area. Courses taken to earn a certificate focus on concentrated education, typically without including general study courses. That’s why a certificate usually recquire less time than the interim it takes to complete a degree program.

Certificate programs tend to vary in length, but generally take less than two years with many lasting less than a year. Students often have a thorough understanding of their specific interest when they’ve earned a certificate. On the other hand, they usually take a broader set that includes general courses for a degree.


The cost of certificate programs may vary. For instance, if students work toward a certificate within a four-year public college program, that may cost more than earning a certificate at a two-year public university. Certification programs usually cost less than degree programs.
Sometimes students earn certificates as stepping stones on the path to completing their degree program. Some schools require that certificate program students enroll in their undergraduate degree program. In fact, with degree enrollments in decline, many universities are starting certificate programs to boost their active student numbers.

Admissions and Prerequisites

Certificate programs may have different admission requirements depending on the school. But there are general guidelines that likely apply to many certificate programs. For instance, many certificate programs require applications and associated fees as well as a high school, or equivalent, degree.

Some certification programs may also require that enrollees have specific coursework on their transcript and maybe even cite a minimum GPA for those classes. Others could request a transcript for all former courses completed. Prerequisite classes sometimes count toward your certificate courses. So, submitting transcripts might be beneficial even if it’s not required. Typically, SATs and ACTs aren’t required for certificate programs.

Schools may include a certificate program along with their course offering for enrolled students. In these cases, eligibility for the certificate program may include a specific education level, for instance, senior year. Program admissions departments could also require a proposal or letter of intent, and some also want a resume. Other schools typically also require that students earning a certificate remain enroll in their degree program throughout the certification process.

Combining with Degree Programs

Undergraduate degree program enrollments are declining. So, many schools are offering certificate programs in order to boost student numbers. In fact, certificates are the fastest growing post-secondary credential. When combined with a degree program, certificates could benefit students as well as schools. That’s because certificate holders often learn industry specific training that may boost their career enhancement. This kind of specific skill-based learning often rounds out resumes with proof of relevant skill development for credentials that could stand out from the rest. Certificate programs also help schools enhance their offering for current students.

Credential stacking with certificates could provide a path for enrolled students to create a more versatile skillset. This strategy typically involves a sequence of targeted education and skills courses. Students can typically proceed through a certificate curriculum on a faster timeline than many traditional degree programs. They could also develop a deeper understanding of relevant tools and how to use them.

Benefits of Pursuing an Undergraduate Certificate

Certificate programs often provide an efficient route for students to earn career credentials, taking less time and money. That’s because these programs usually proceed faster and often cost less than traditional degree programs and are usually online. Benefits like these have potential to make stacking credentials easier and more convenient than a typical accelerated degree program. In fact, students pursuing certificates often earn credits that apply to an undergraduate degree as well. Industries increasingly value, and sometimes request, certification to verify relevant job skills and knowledge. Let’s explore additional benefits to certificate programs.

Diverse fields of study

From business and healthcare to technology and the arts, certificates reach across a diverse range of subjects. Each topic presents opportunities for several certifications. For instance, in healthcare students could pursue certificates in Medical Billing and coding, Phlebotomy, Dental Assistant, Pharmacy Technician, Clinical Medical Assistant, or Emergency Medical Technician (EMT). Earning certificates like these could help expand a student’s resume, give them more flexibility in career choices, and enhance their appeal to potential employers.

Certificate programs give individuals the chance to deepen knowledge in a variety of specific areas. Students may then discover if the career goals they’re considering match their potential job skills and experiences. Even if a nursing student finds out they don’t want to draw blood after earning their Phlebotomy certificate, it helps boost their resume and adds credits toward their degree.

Filling skill gaps

Sometimes certificate programs also help those in the workforce who may be seeking job enhancement. That’s. That’s because when pursuing a certificate, individuals could acquire targeted skills and practical training applicable to their chosen industry. This could serve as professional development to help address skill gaps, enhance employability, and improve job performance.

Some employers encourage, reimburse, or even cover certificate programs for employees as upskilling options. Typically, professional certifications provide validation for mastery of the subject matter and skills developed. These learning outcomes could enhance a certificate holder’s on-the-job practical skills and maybe even create potential for a promotion. So, certifications could benefit the workplace as well as the certified employee.

Flexibility and accessibility

Certificate programs tend to offer more flexibility than traditional degrees thanks to remote and part-time learning options as well as their targeted and accelerated coursework. Colleges are aware that certificate seeker are often also earning a degree or working and want to fit certificate studies into an already busy lifestyle.

Some of the ways schools help make certificates more accessible include part-time options, online learning, and evening classes. These flexible options give students with other commitments a chance to integrate a certificate program into their schedule. An accelerated learning rate also helps enrollees pursue a certificate without too much disruption because these programs often take a year or less. By contrast, traditional degree programs typically require two to four years of full-time enrollment.

Competency certificates hone in on specific skill acquisition and practical training with targeted courses. Certificate students often complete the program requirements without need for general studies classes. This has potential to free up more time for certificate seekers to meet other commitments while also achieving their education objectives.

Who Should Consider Undergraduate Certificates?

Undergraduate certificates often work well for enrolled students pursuing an associate or bachelor’s degree. But these certificate programs may also serve recent high school graduates, working professionals, career changers, as well as anyone seeking to upskill and expand their contribution at work.

Recent high school graduates could enroll in certificate courses as an efficient and cost-effective way to boost their qualifications for entry level opportunities or degree programs. Working professionals may earn a certificate for skill acquisition to help increase their potential for a promotion. Others who may be considering a career transition can pursue certificates to learn job ready skills missing from their resume. This could enhance their employability while also serving as a way to try out aspects of this potential career change.

Benefits of Undergraduate Certificates

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Career Opportunities

Certificate courses may help enhance marketable qualifications for career focused students as well as employed people. Some may jumpstart a career with a 3- or 6-month competency certificate such as web designer, real estate agent, personal trainer, or air traffic controller. These serve as examples for how certificate courses may open entry level career pathways.

Healthcare industry specific training also includes opportunities for career enhancement thanks to certificate programs. From healthcare newcomers earning a phlebotomy certificate to practicing nurses seeking to fast-track credentials for a promotion, certificates serve healthcare practitioners at various levels. Here are specific examples of career opportunities with associated certificate programs.

1 Licensed Practical/Vocational Nurse (LPN)


In the role of an LPN or LVN, you might find yourself tending to elderly patients, whether in their homes or within residential care facilities. The increasing prevalence of conditions such as diabetes and obesity is likely to generate a heightened need for nurses. Additionally, the growing prominence of outpatient care centers could result in an increased demand for LPN positions.

Median annual salary, 2023:

$59,730 per year

Projected employment, 2022-2032

5%

 

2 Surgical Technologist


As a Surgical Technologist, you have the opportunity to support medical teams and surgeons throughout the entire surgical process, including pre-operation, during the procedure, and post-operation. Prior to the surgery, your responsibilities may involve tasks such as sterilizing equipment and preparing the patient. In the course of the operation, you may aid doctors by passing instruments and maintaining an inventory of supplies. Subsequently, your duties could include tasks like applying bandages to the patient and replenishing supplies in the operating room.

Median annual salary, 2023:

$60,610 per year

Projected employment, 2022-2032

5%

 

3 Court Reporter


As a Court Reporters, you have the opportunity to generate verbatim transcriptions during trials, depositions, and various legal proceedings. Simultaneous captioners offer comparable transcriptions for television or presentations in diverse settings, like press conferences and business meetings, catering to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.

Median annual salary, 2023:

$63,940 per year

Projected employment, 2022-2032

3%

 

4 Fire Investigator/Inspector


As Fire Investigators/Inspectors, you have the responsibility of examining fire scenes to identify their origin and cause. Your tasks include assessing fire damage, gathering evidence, and conducting witness interviews to reconstruct the events leading to the fire. Additionally, you inspect structures to ensure compliance with fire codes and safety regulations, providing recommendations for improvements as needed. Your role is crucial for preventing future fires and enhancing overall fire safety.

Median annual salary, 2023:

$74,160 per year

Projected employment, 2022-2032

5%

 

Conclusion

Earning an undergraduate certificate could springboard new job opportunities or enhance a stagnant career. Certificate programs offer a variety of flexible learning options from a 3-month online course to a year of skill-based learning on site at a university. You could explore targeted education opportunities like these to deepen your knowledge and career prospects.

Exploring Bootcamps: Accelerate Your Path To Skill Mastery

In today’s rapidly evolving professional landscape, the demand for targeted skills and efficient learning pathways has never been greater. Enter bootcamps—a dynamic approach to education that’s redefining how individuals acquire in-demand skills for a successful career. With an emphasis on intensive learning, career-focused education, and fast-tracking skills, bootcamps are emerging as a powerful means of rapid skill acquisition in a variety of fields.

Gone are the days when a traditional four-year degree was the only path to professional success. In this era of innovation, where industries could transform in the blink of an eye, bootcamps have emerged as a compelling alternative. These programs typically offer an accelerated journey to proficiency, enabling learners to quickly gain skills and knowledge and enter the workforce with a competitive edge.

In this article, we’ll delve into the world of bootcamps, exploring their essence of intensive learning and their laser-focused approach to career-oriented education. Whether you’re a recent high school graduate, a career changer, or someone looking to stay ahead of the curve, join us on a journey to uncover the potential of bootcamp courses.

What Are Bootcamps?

Bootcamps are intensive, short-term education programs that focus on teaching specific skills or subjects within a condensed timeframe. These programs are designed to provide practical, hands-on learning experiences and job-ready training geared to equip individuals with the skills needed for a particular job or career path. Bootcamps typically prioritize real-world application, experiential learning, and industry relevance.

Bootcamps typically cover a wide range of subjects, including coding, data science, digital marketing, cybersecurity, design, healthcare, and more. They aim to bridge the gap between traditional education and the rapidly changing needs of the job market. Bootcamps often emphasize project-based learning, collaboration, and building a portfolio of work to showcase to potential employers.

Key Characteristics

Key characteristics of bootcamps include:

  1. Short duration: Bootcamps are typically shorter than traditional degree programs, lasting anywhere from a few weeks to a few months. This condensed timeframe could allow participants to quickly acquire skills and enter the workforce.
  2. Intensive learning: Bootcamps provide an intensive and immersive education, focusing on hands-on experiences and practical training. Participants often spend a significant portion of their time working on real-world projects.
  3. Focused curriculum: Bootcamps have a specific and focused curriculum—bootcamp courses are tailored to the skills required for a particular job or industry. They cut out general education courses and dive directly into the relevant content.
  4. Industry alignment: Bootcamps are often developed in collaboration with industry experts and employers. This could help ensure that the bootcamp courses are up-to-date and aligned with current industry trends and demands.
  5. Flexible learning options: Bootcamps may be offered in various formats: there are in-person bootcamps and online bootcamps, as well as bootcamps that are full-time, part-time , and self-paced. This flexibility caters to a diverse range of learners and schedules.
  6. Job placement support: Many bootcamps offer job placement assistance, resume building, interview coaching, and networking opportunities to help participants with career transition after completing the program.

It’s important to research and choose reputable bootcamp providers to ensure that the program’s quality, content, and learning outcomes align with your career goals and expectations.

Diverse Bootcamp Domains

The world of bootcamp education is expansive, catering to a multitude of career paths. Aspiring coders could immerse themselves in coding bootcamps, gaining proficiency in programming languages like Python, JavaScript, and Ruby. Meanwhile, web development bootcamps delve into the art of crafting interactive and visually appealing websites, encompassing frontend and backend technologies.

Venturing into the realm of data science, bootcamps equip learners with the analytical skills required to mine insights from complex datasets. Design bootcamps nurture creative talents, teaching the principles of user experience (UX) and user interface (UI) design. Digital marketing bootcamps, on the other hand, guide participants through the intricacies of online advertising, social media strategies, and SEO techniques.

Advantages of Bootcamps

Bootcamps, whether they’re focused on coding, data science, digital marketing, or other fields, offer several advantages that make them an appealing option for individuals seeking to quickly gain practical skills and enter the workforce. Here are some of the key advantages of bootcamps.

  1. Accelerated learning: Bootcamps are designed to provide intensive and focused training within a short period, typically ranging from a few weeks to a few months. This accelerated learning format allows participants to acquire necessary skills in a condensed timeframe.
  2. Practical skills: Bootcamps are known for their hands-on, project-based approach. Participants typically work on real-world projects and scenarios, gaining practical skills that may be directly applicable to the job market.
  3. Industry-relevant content: Bootcamps are often developed in collaboration with industry professionals and employers. This helps to ensure that the curriculum aligns with current industry trends, tools, and technologies, making graduates more marketable to potential employers.
  4. Career switching: Bootcamps could provide a pathway for individuals to switch careers or enter a new field. They offer a streamlined route to acquire the skills needed to transition into a different job role without the time commitment of traditional degree programs.
  5. Networking opportunities: Bootcamps may bring together a diverse group of participants, potentially creating opportunities for networking and collaboration. Connecting with classmates, instructors, and industry professionals could lead to helpful contacts and potential job opportunities.
  6. Supportive environment: Bootcamps strive to provide a supportive learning environment with experienced instructors and mentors who guide participants through the learning process. This support helps participants overcome challenges and stay motivated.
  7. Career services: Many bootcamps provide career services, such as resume building, interview preparation, and job placement assistance. This might be particularly beneficial for those looking to secure employment quickly after completing the program.
  8. Cost and time efficiency: Bootcamps may be more cost effective than traditional degree programs, both in terms of tuition fees and the shorter duration. This could make them an attractive option for individuals looking for a faster return on investment.
  9. Flexibility: Many bootcamps offer a variety of formats, including in-person, online, full-time, and part-time options. This flexibility allows participants to choose a program that could fit their schedule and learning preferences.
  10. Focus on marketable skills: Bootcamp courses tend to focus on skills that are in high demand in the job market. This focus on specific, job-relevant skills could increase graduates’ chances of securing employment in their chosen field.

Who Should Consider Bootcamps

Bootcamps have gained prominence as a dynamic solution for individuals seeking to acquire specific skills, change careers, or stay current in an ever-changing professional landscape.

Bootcamps are not limited to a single demographic; they cater to a broad spectrum of individuals with varying aspirations and goals. Recent graduates find value in bootcamps as a means to bridge the gap between their academic qualifications and the practical skills required by employers. These immersive programs empower them to enter the workforce with a competitive edge, ensuring a smoother transition from academia to industry.

For career switchers, bootcamps provide a streamlined route to enter a new field without committing to a full-fledged degree program. Professionals seeking career enhancement and career growth within their current roles could leverage bootcamps to acquire focused skills that enhance their contributions and open doors to new opportunities. Additionally, lifelong learners and enthusiasts looking to explore new interests find bootcamps to be an accessible and engaging way to gain hands-on experience.

Because one of the standout features of many bootcamps is their flexibility, they may be an attractive option for individuals with busy schedules. Many bootcamps offer part-time, online, and self-paced formats, allowing learners to balance their education with existing commitments. This accessibility democratizes learning, enabling individuals from various walks of life to engage with educational opportunities that might have been otherwise unattainable.

Furthermore, the fast-paced nature of bootcamps is particularly suited for those looking to adapt swiftly to industry changes. With their focused curriculum and practical approach, bootcamps compress the learning curve, equipping participants with relevant skills in a short span.

Bootcamps Infographic

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Choosing the Perfect Bootcamp

With the vast array of bootcamps, finding one that aligns with your goals could be a pivotal step in your educational journey. As you embark on this  path, here are some tips that could guide you in making an informed choice to help maximize your learning experience.

Researching Course Content and Curriculum

The heart of any bootcamp lies in its curriculum. Before enrolling, dive deep into the content of bootcamp courses it resonates with your learning objectives. Scrutinize the topics covered, the depth of material, and the relevance to your desired field. A curriculum should encompass both foundational concepts and advanced techniques, preparing you to tackle real-world challenges.

Evaluating Instructor Qualifications

The quality of instruction could directly impact your learning outcomes. Investigate the qualifications and expertise of the instructors who will guide you through the program. Instructors with practical industry experience and a deep understanding of the subject matter could enhance the value of the bootcamp, offering industry insights that textbooks alone might not provide.

Considering Student Reviews and Testimonials

Peer feedback could offer insights into the effectiveness of a bootcamp. Delve into student reviews and testimonials to gauge the overall satisfaction level and experiences of past participants. Candid insights from those who have walked the same path could provide a realistic view of the bootcamp’s strengths, weaknesses, and the kind of support you could expect.

Analyzing Job Placement Rates and Alumni Success

A significant measure of a bootcamp’s success lies in the employability of its graduates. Investigate the bootcamp’s job placement rates and alumni success stories. High job placement rates might indicate that the bootcamp equips students with the skills needed to secure meaningful employment in their chosen fields. Alumni success stories could showcase how the bootcamp’s training translates into real-world achievements.

Aligning with Personal Learning Goals

Each learner’s journey is unique, driven by personal aspirations and goals. Ensure that the bootcamp you choose aligns with your specific career objectives. Whether you’re seeking to switch careers, upskill within your current role, or explore a new field, the bootcamp should offer a curriculum that caters to your needs.

Considering Format and Flexibility

The format of the bootcamp is another critical factor to consider. Evaluate whether the bootcamp offers in-person, online, part-time, or full-time options that accommodate your schedule and learning preferences. Flexibility in learning format could ensure that you are able to seamlessly integrate education into your life.

While there are many benefits to bootcamps, it’s important for aspiring bootcamp participants to be aware of the challenges that come along with this fast-paced learning experience.

The Intensity of the Curriculum

One of the defining characteristics of bootcamps is their fast-paced curriculum. The condensed nature of these programs means that you’ll typically be exposed to a significant amount of information in a short span of time. This could be both exciting and overwhelming. To tackle this challenge:

  1. Stay organized: Keep track of your learning materials, assignments, and progress. Create a study schedule that breaks down each topic into manageable portions.
  2. Prioritize learning: Understand that not every concept could be mastered instantly. Focus on grasping the core concepts before moving on to more advanced topics.
  3. Practice regularly: Consistent practice may be key to retaining knowledge. Set aside time each day for coding exercises and projects.

Time Commitments

Bootcamps often demand a substantial time commitment. Balancing the demands of the bootcamp with your personal and professional responsibilities might be a real challenge. Here’s how to manage your time effectively:

  1. Set realistic expectations: Acknowledge that the bootcamp could require a significant time investment. Communicate your commitment to friends and family so they understand your schedule.
  2. Time management: Plan your days carefully. Allocate specific blocks of time for learning, practice, breaks, and other commitments.
  3. Avoid burnout: Remember that quality is usually more important than quantity. Overloading yourself might lead to burnout. Take breaks and engage in activities that help you recharge.

Financial Investment

While bootcamps offer an expedited path into the tech industry, they might come with a hefty price tag. Managing the financial aspect could be challenging, but there are ways to ease the burden:

  1. Research payment options: Many bootcamps offer flexible payment plans, scholarships, or income-sharing agreements. Explore these options to determine what works for your financial situation.
  2. Budget wisely: Plan your expenses throughout the bootcamp duration. Cut down on unnecessary costs and prioritize expenditures.
  3. Consider the ROI: Think of the bootcamp as an investment in your future. Research the average salaries for bootcamp graduates in your desired field to assess the potential return on your investment.

Managing Expectations

It’s easy to approach a bootcamp with sky-high expectations. While these programs may be transformative, it’s important to manage your expectations realistically:

  1. Embrace the learning curve: Understand that you’re embarking on a journey of growth. Mistakes and challenges are part of the learning process.
  2. Celebrate small wins: Acknowledge your progress, no matter how incremental it might seem. Each small achievement brings you closer to your goals.
  3. Be patient: Mastery takes time. Don’t expect to be an “expert” by the end of the bootcamp. Instead, focus on building a strong foundation that you could continue to build upon.

Staying Motivated

Bootcamps may require sustained motivation to overcome the hurdles and complete the program successfully. Here’s how to keep your motivation levels up:

  1. Set clear goals: Define your short-term and long-term goals. Having a clear vision of what you’re working toward could keep you motivated during challenging times.
  2. Find a support system: Connect with fellow bootcamp participants, mentors, or online communities. Sharing your experiences and challenges with others may provide emotional support.
  3. Celebrate progress: Regularly reflect on how far you’ve come since the start of the bootcamp. Recognizing your growth could reignite your motivation.

Maintaining Work-Life Balance

The intensive nature of coding bootcamps might blur the lines between work and personal life. Striking a balance may be crucial for your overall well-being:

  1. Set boundaries: Define clear boundaries between your bootcamp commitments and personal time. Avoid the temptation to work around the clock.
  2. Prioritize self-care: Allocate time for activities you enjoy outside of coding. Engage in exercise, hobbies, and spending quality time with loved ones.
  3. Practice mindfulness: Incorporate mindfulness techniques into your routine to stay grounded and reduce stress.

Beyond the Bootcamp: Navigating the Path of Continuous Learning and Growth

Completing a coding bootcamp is a significant accomplishment that could equip you with the skills and knowledge needed to embark on a career in the dynamic world of software development. However, the journey generally doesn’t end there. In fact, it could be just the beginning of a lifelong commitment to continuous learning, growth, and professional development.

Embracing Continuous Learning

The tech industry is constantly evolving, with new programming languages, frameworks, and tools emerging regularly. As a graduate of a coding bootcamp, staying up-to-date with these industry trends may be critical for remaining competitive in the job market. Here’s how you could make continuous learning a cornerstone of your post-bootcamp journey:

  1. Read and research: Regularly read blogs, articles, and online resources to stay informed about the latest developments in technology. Follow thought leaders and industry experts to gain insights into emerging trends.
  2. Online courses: Enroll in online courses, tutorials, and workshops to expand your skill set. There are a plethora of options.
  3. Personal projects: Undertake personal projects that align with your interests. This not only solidifies your learning but also showcases your skills to potential employers.

Networking within the Field

Building connections with professionals in your field could open doors to job opportunities, collaborations, and mentorship. Here’s how you might effectively network after completing your bootcamp:

  1. Attend tech meetups and conferences: Participate in local meetups and conferences related to coding, development, and technology. These events could provide excellent networking opportunities and a chance to learn from industry leaders.
  2. Use online platforms: Join online communities, forums, and social media groups related to your areas of interest. Engage in discussions, ask questions, and share your insights.
  3. Connect with alumni: Reach out to fellow bootcamp graduates. They could provide insights, advice, and potential connections in the industry.

Pursuing Further Education

While a coding bootcamp is designed to provide a solid foundation, some individuals might feel the need to deepen their knowledge further. Advanced bootcamp programs and further education options could help you stand out in a specific area or gain a deeper understanding of complex concepts:

  1. Advanced bootcamps: Many bootcamp providers offer advanced programs that focus on targeted skills or advanced topics. These programs could help you further refine your skills and knowledge.
  2. Formal education: Consider pursuing a formal degree in computer science or a related field if you’re looking to build a strong academic foundation. This option might be particularly appealing if you’re aiming for more research-oriented roles.

Building a Portfolio

As you continue your journey in the tech industry, a well-constructed portfolio could become an important asset. A portfolio is meant to showcase your skills, projects, and accomplishments, providing potential employers with tangible evidence of your capabilities.

Conclusion

Whether you’re a recent graduate, a career switcher, a professional seeking career growth, or simply someone with an insatiable curiosity, bootcamps could offer an impactful educational journey as well as taking a graduate degree programs. With their flexible learning options and industry-relevant curricula, bootcamps stand as a testament to the power of accessible, adaptable, and targeted education in the modern world.

10 Top-Paying Careers Requiring an Associate Degree

 

Pursuing an associate degree could be a great career move, opening up positions that might not be available to those with only a high school diploma or GED. In addition to a broader range of career opportunities, earning an associate degree could also boost your earning potential. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that in 2022, the median usual weekly earnings for those who hold an associate degree was $1,005 more than that of those who had only earned their high school diploma.

Top-Paying Careers Requiring an Associate Degree

In this article, we list 10 top-paying careers that typically require an associate degree at the entry level, as specified by the BLS.

Also make sure to check out our article “10 Top In-Demand Careers Requiring an Associate Degree.”

1 Air Traffic Controller


What they do

Air traffic controllers monitor and coordinate the movement of aircraft on the ground and in the air. They direct pilots through takeoff and landing and provide them with updates about weather and other critical information. They use radio equipment, radar, and computers in their work. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate or bachelor’s degree through a Federal Aviation Administration  (FAA)-approved Air Traffic Collegiate Training Initiative

Median annual salary, 2023:

$137,380

Projected employment, 2032

23,000

2 Radiation Therapist


What they do

Radiation therapists administer radiation to cancer patients. They need to calibrate and operate machines such as linear accelerators and make sure they position the machine correctly. They also educate and explain the procedure to patients. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate or bachelor’s degree in radiation therapy

Median annual salary, 2023:

$98,300

Projected employment, 2032

15,900

3 Dental Hygienist


What they do

Dental hygienists clean and polish teeth, removing plaque and tartar. They conduct an examination, looking for any signs of dental disease. They might take X-rays or apply sealants to protect the teeth. They discuss oral health with patients and the importance of diet. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in dental hygiene

Median annual salary, 2023:

$87,530

Projected employment, 2032

219,400

4 Diagnostic Medical Sonographer


What they do

Diagnostic medical sonographers use a special instrument called a transducer to create images of a patient’s organs and tissues. Physicians use the images, referred to as ultrasounds or sonograms, to diagnose disease. There are a number of types of sonographers, including cardiac sonographer, abdominal sonographer, and pediatric sonographer. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in sonography

Median annual salary, 2023:

$80,850

Projected employment, 2032

142,800

5 Avionics Technician


What they do

Avionics technicians repair electric instruments in aircraft. They use using circuit testers, oscilloscopes, and voltmeters to test the instruments and repair any defective components. They also assemble components, install instrument panels, and keep records of maintenance and repairs. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in avionics

Median annual salary, 2023:

$75,400

Projected employment, 2032

161,000

6 Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technologist/ Technician


What they do

These professionals work with equipment used to develop, test, produce, and sustain aircraft and spacecraft. They are responsible for installing, running, and maintaining the equipment, and often meet with aerospace engineers to discuss test results. One type of equipment they might work on is wind tunnels. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in engineering technology or a related field

Median annual salary, 2023:

$75,400

Projected employment, 2032

10,200

7 Respiratory Therapist


What they do

Respiratory therapists work with patients who have breathing issues, ranging from an infant with a collapsed lung to an older patient who has a breathing condition such as asthma or COPD. They examine patients, conduct diagnostic tests, and treat patients to improve their breathing. 

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in respiratory therapy

Median annual salary, 2023:

$77,960

Projected employment, 2032

133,100

8 Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologist/Technician


What they do

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians work with engineers to help design and develop electrical and electronic equipment such as computers. They assemble, calibrate, and repair electrical equipment, draw design diagrams, and monitor the design process for technical issues. They test electronic equipment and analyze the information from the test.  

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in electrical or electronic engineering technology 

Median annual salary, 2023:

$72,800

Projected employment, 2032

102,500

9 Radiologic Technologist/Technician


What they do

Radiologic techs, also known as radiographers, perform diagnostic tests using equipment such as X-ray machines and CT (computed tomography) scanners. They set up the equipment, position patients, and take images. They typically work with physicians and other healthcare professionals to review and evaluate the images.

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree in radiography

Median annual salary, 2023:

$76,020

Projected employment, 2031

264,100

10 Occupational Therapy Assistant


What they do

Occupational therapy involves helping people who have been ill, injured, or have conditions such as Parkinson’s disease recover the physical skills needed for daily life. Occupational therapy assistants work with under the supervision of occupational therapists to help patients in a variety of ways. They assist them with exercises, teach them how to use special equipment, and record their progress. They might also collaborate with the therapist to develop and carry out treatment plans.  

Typical entry-level education

Associate degree from an accredited occupational therapy assistant program

Median annual salary, 2023:

$65,450

Projected employment, 2032

$49,000

Source: https://www.bls.gov/

Based on national data, not school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary. Accessed 8/9/2023. 

 

10 Top In-Demand Careers Requiring an Associate Degree

 

Earning a high school diploma or GED is a great accomplishment—but now what? You may want to pursue further education to increase your career options, but might not want to commit to 4 more years to earn a bachelor’s degree. 

Pursuing an associate degree could be a great solution for you. You could typically complete a program in 2 years, and many jobs requiring an associate degree are in high demand. In this article, we explore the top 10 in-demand careers that require an associate degree and provide information about which industries these careers are in most demand. The rankings that follow are based on the number of projected jobs in 2031, not growth rate. See the infographic for information about the fastest-growing jobs that require an associate degree. 

Also make sure to check out our article “10 Top Top-Paying Careers Requiring an Associate Degree.”

Top 10 In-Demand Careers

1 Computer Support Specialist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Computer Support Specialists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Computer Systems Design and Related Services 160,800$59,700
Employment Services43,800$55,230
Management of Companies and Enterprises38,150$62,970 
Elementary and Secondary Schools 35,360 $54,450
Software Publishers 29,570 $70,960 

What They Do:

Provide technical support to computer users; maintain networks

Employment, 2022

914,100

Projected employment, 2032

963,300

2 Preschool Teacher


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Preschool Teachers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Child Care Services 290,870$34,480
Elementary and Secondary Schools75,700$53,200
Individual and Family Services 12,530$39,470
Religious Organizations 7,240$40,960
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 6,490$45,140

What they do:

Care for and teach basic skills to children who have not yet entered kindergarten

Employment, 2022

512,300

Projected employment, 2032

529,600

3Paralegal/Legal Assistant


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Paralegals and Legal Assistants, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Legal Services 263,170$60,570 
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 16,420$61,190 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 15,080 $76,310 
State Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 10,850 $52,900 
Management of Companies and Enterprises 6,890 $84,260 

What they do:

Assist lawyers in conducting research, writing drafts and reports, and maintaining files

Employment, 2022

354,300

Projected employment, 2032

369,100

4Radiologic and MRI Technologist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Radiologic and MRI Technologists, Postsecondary, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals125,430 $71,260 
Offices of Physicians 40,390 $62,220 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 16,060 $70,460 
Outpatient Care Centers 15,050 $81,530 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 5,980 $78,160 

What they do:

Perform diagnostic tests on patients with equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners; adjust and maintain equipment

Employment, 2022

264,100

Projected employment, 2031

279,600

5Dental Hygienist


Industries with the highest levels of employment of Dental Hygienists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Dentists 203,330$85,110
Employment Services 2,630$88,670
Offices of Physicians 2,080$77,070
Outpatient Care Centers 1,850$86,580
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 870$69,450

What they do:

Clean and polish teeth, look for dental disease, educate patients about oral health

Employment, 2022

219,400

Projected employment, 2032

235,700

6Physical Therapist Assistant/Aide


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Other Health Practitioners 44,900 $59,970 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 17,640 $63,430 
Home Health Care Services 11,810 $78,360 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 8,950 $72,800 
Offices of Physicians 4,810 $59,310 

Typical entry-level education

Master’s degree in social work

Employment, 2022

145,100

Projected employment, 2032

172,700

7Diagnostic Medical Sonographer


Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 45,770 $84,340 
Offices of Physicians 20,220 $82,890 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 8,510 $78,190 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,240 $113,680 
Employment Services 920 $79,550 

What they do:

Conduct tests and create images using sonography equipment

Employment, 2022

142,800

Projected employment, 2032

156,900

8Respiratory Therapist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Respiratory Therapists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 97,800$74,240 
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals 7,720 $72,600 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 4,950 $69,770 
Employment Services 3,280 $108,330
Professional and Commercial Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 2,490 $63,610 

What they do:

Master’s degree from a physician assistant program

Employment, 2022

133,100

Projected employment, 2032

149,800

9Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologist/Technician


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Veterinary Technologists and Technicians, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Veterinary and Photography Services 109,230 $40,300  
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 2,850 $47,680 
Social Advocacy Organizations 2,200 $39,310 
Other Personal Services 1,560 $39,180 
Scientific Research and Development Services 740 $62,030 

What they do:

Aid veterinarians in conducting tests, examining, and caring for animals

Employment, 2022

122,900

Projected employment, 2032

148,100

10Medical Equipment Repairer


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Medical Equipment Repairers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Elementary and Secondary Schools24,070 $63,790 
Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance 10,770 $59,060 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 6,630 $71,320 
Rental and leasing services (5322, 5323, and 5324 only) 4,180 $43,500 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,600 $56,280 

What they do:

Repair and maintain medical equipment such as ventilators, anesthesia machines, electric wheelchairs, and hospital beds

Employment, 2022

66,400

Projected employment, 2032

75,100

 

Source: https://www.bls.gov/

Based on national data, not school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary. Accessed 8/9/2023. 

10 Common Job Interview Questions and How to Answer Them

Nerves may hit along with the excitement when you reach the interview stage of an employment opportunity. Luckily, you could learn from those who’ve asked and answered before. Here, we provide you with a helpful guide for job interview preparation with these common job interview questions. We’ll explore questions job candidates often face, discuss why the interviewer might be asking the question, and provide tips on how to respond.

1. Tell Me A Bit About Yourself And Your Work Experience

This is the first in the list of common job interview questions. It’s common for an interviewer to start with a “non-question” like this. This question works a lot like an overarching personality test. Consider questions like this as an opportunity to highlight your special features that may not come through in the forthcoming standard interview questions.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

This question is a good way for both you and the interviewer to ease into the interview. But it’s also a way for the interviewer to assess your temperament, confidence, ability to communicate, and priorities.  

At base, interviewers are looking for a competent candidate with enthusiasm for the work who could play a functional role on their team. On a more general level, people spend a lot of their time in life at work. So, interviewers might also look for signs of a personality match with the current team and dynamic.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

Think of your response as a story, one that highlights your interests, background, and future goals. As with stories, it could be helpful to structure your response to help make it organized and concise and keep you on track. One possible structure is “past, present, future.” Begin by discussing how you became interested in the field, your past work experiences, and your achievements in those positions. Next, transition to your current situation, and then to your hopes for the future.

Make your response specific, and consider including a few details about hobbies and interests outside of work. This is a chance to let your personality shine!

2. Why Do You Want To Work At This Company In This position?

Take note that this is a two-part question. You’re being asked what appeals to you about this workplace as well as the job opening within it. It’s essentially one of the most common job interview questions about your motives.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

Potential employers want to hear about why you’re interviewing for this particular job in this particular company. It’s important to them that job candidates know what they’re signing up for when applying to work with them. This question helps them determine if that’s the case and reveals your level of interest in the company as well as your potential role.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

A good way to prepare for this question may be to ask yourself, Why this job and this company? Then, you could answer in a way that’s true to yourself and suited to the potential employer’s expectations. Consider checking the company website for their mission statement and look for goals that parallel your own purpose.  

Prepare with research and insights into what makes the company special and how you might fit in and make helpful contributions. Answer with passion—this is a perfect time to show your enthusiasm for the company. Showing excitement for the position and company could help you build rapport with the interviewer while also spotlighting yourself as a match.

3. How do you manage challenging situations at work? Please give an illustrative example from your last job

This common job interview question presents a dual challenge. That’s because an answer reveals how you see work challenges, based on the way you frame the situation in your story. Ideally, you give the interviewer a lens into how you could manage stressful situations in the workplace.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

Interviewers want to assess your adaptability for managing stress in different types of challenges. They want to know that you have a set of tools and techniques for handling difficult situations that allow for flexibility.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

Give a specific example of how you handled stress and pressure at work. Keep this story relevant to the position you’re interviewing about. Focus on your personal growth, the skills you used, and the lessons you learned to help make your story compelling while also highlighting your abilities.

4. When you have multiple projects at the same time, how do you stay organized and on time? What’s an example of this in action from the recent past?

Organization and timeliness may be key in the workplace no matter your role. Many people have trouble juggling more than one task at a time—you want to show that you have the tools and ability to do so.

Why is This one of the Most Common Interview Questions?

Interviewers want to see indicators that you know how to manage a workload, meet deadlines, and set priorities. They also want to see that you are able to communicate and collaborate, because these parts of staying organized and on time as part of a team.  

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

There are many ways to stay organized and on time—which means there’s not a singular answer for this. So, when you prep your answer, think about specific ways you manage your time and the organizational practices you use.

Give an example from a typical workday that shows your time and organization systems in action along with how you share needs and expectations with your team. You might want to keep this answer especially succinct and organized—given the subject matter. For example, you might follow an outline of sorts by framing the answer with <em>First, second, then, and last.</em> It may serve you to also account for unexpected changes and show some flexibility in your system so that you don’t appear overly rigid.

Many employers utilize systems and apps to help employees stay on track. So, if you’ve used them, it may serve you to mention this experience and talk about how it helped your process.

5. What can you tell me about a time when you made a mistake at work? What happened, and how did you handle the situation from start to finish?

We all make mistakes, and the way we handle them could reveal a lot about what we’re like at work. For instance, if a candidate won’t admit they’ve made mistakes, it might show they aren’t great at accountability.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

This question presents a great litmus test for a candidate’s personality and temperament. For instance, if you answer the question with a harsh indictment of your mistake, you might be seen as being too harsh on yourself and perhaps others as well. Your answer could also show the interviewer how well you communicate and your teamwork style.

Interviewers want to know that you have the initiative to find solutions and ask for help. Even if the mistake was a mere misunderstanding, reaching out and asking for clarity could show that you are able to take action to fix matters.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

This question invites an example. So, give a specific instance of a minor mistake you’ve made and how you managed the situation. One way to use this question to your advantage could be to highlight positive qualities you may have used to solve it, such as communication and teamwork. You could also wrap up your answer with what you learned and how you use that lesson now to avoid making the same mistake again.


Check out the infographic below to learn more.

Common Job Interview Questions

6. Where do you see your career in 3 to 5 years?

Interviewers pose this standard question even if they don’t expect candidates to know where their career might be in the future. Mostly, it’s about checking where your head is career-wise. Are you thinking about where you’re going, how you’re doing, and what it means to you?  They’re looking for a motivated and productive mindset.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

Typically, the main objective of this question is to learn about how much you care about your career path. Interviewers are checking for short- and long-term goals. But they may not consider the actual goals as important as the fact that you have some. So, it’s not critical that your plans perfectly align with where you may wind up. Just have some goals. It shows you’re thinking about it.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

This question calls out for preparation. You may want to work toward aligning your goals with a career trajectory that follows naturally from the position they’re filling. Be enthusiastic about your goals and the possibilities for your career. Show your ambition, but be realistic—keep your goals achievable within the time frame.

7. Why did you leave your last job?

This question gives you a chance to highlight your ambitions and hopes to meet new challenges. It’s also an opportunity for you to ask why the position you’re applying for is open now. That could yield insight into what might lie ahead if you land the job.  

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

Potential employers typically want to know several things: 1. Whether you were fired and, if so, why; 2. If you’re someone who has trouble staying interested in work and moves around a lot; 3. If any issues with your last job might also be issues in the position you are applying for.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

Interviewers want a clear and honest answer; simple works fine here. But it’s also important to keep your story as positive as possible. No matter how you may feel about your former or current job, there’s a bright side to every story, and this is a great place to shine a light on it.

You could talk about wanting to learn from a new environment and make a more significant contribution at a company that’s better suited to you. Your response could open a channel to talk about how this company and position could be one that you are excited to commit to.

8. What would you change about your current place of work if you could?

This question may be a little tricky. On the one hand, you don’t want to sound like you are bad-mouthing your current company. On the other hand, you want to focus on an issue that is significant and warrants changing.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

The interviewer wants a clear answer that tells them a concise story about a problem and solution relevant to their business and your potential role. This could help them understand how you might suit the position and fit into the company culture. It also puts your ambition level on display based on how big a change you’d like to make. Do you want to change a company fundamental? Or the kind of coffee in the break room?

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

Among the many ways to answer this question, one key element crosses through all of them. Try to keep the topic to something you’re capable of changing. It grounds your proposal in a possible reality. Also, be specific. For example, you might talk about ways to open channels of communication such as creating a system for answering emails in a timely way or filtering irrelevant emails from the team inbox.

9. What’s your greatest achievement—the one about which you’re most proud?

It’s your time to shine. This question opens the floor for you to spotlight accomplishments. We’re all proud of something we’ve done. These achievements say a lot about us and may show not only how we see ourselves but also what we think matters most about our work.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

Interviewers are likely hoping for a relevant answer that suits the open position they’re attempting to fill. That could mean several things, from skills and experience to attitude and value alignment. So, stay relevant to the position you’re seeking, and talk about a measurable success.

They might also be looking for how you measure success at work. For example, if you see your greatest achievement as the blowout office parties you plan, you may not measure success in alignment with your interviewer.  

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

This question highlights what you value most about yourself. For example, sharing a parenting story about overcoming a challenge with your kids might point to family values. That may align with the interviewer’s interest in you as a candidate. Perhaps they’ve been tasked with finding candidates who share the core values of their family values company. Answer this question honestly. Having a job that fits your values could increase the chances that you’ll be more invested at work.

10. What didn’t I ask you but should have?

This question could serve as an opportunity to fill gaps that may be left about your experience or skills. It’s also a chance to give the interviewer a more rounded perspective of you.

Why Do Interviewers Ask This Question?

This question may enable the interviewer to see how interested you are, how much you’ve been paying attention, and learn more about you. It’s also a low effort way for them to do all of this with a single question.

How To Respond to Common Job Interview Questions Like This?

Answering this question well could serve as a chance to spotlight listening skills and insight. Prepared candidates could also use this opportunity to talk about unmentioned strengths. Key to this question could be an alignment with the way the interviewer has set the stage. You’ve been answering their questions and gained familiarity with their priorities and interview style. Keep these aspects in mind.  

 

10 Top In-Demand Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree

 

Earning a master’s degree may become increasingly important for professionals looking to remain competitive and move up in their careers. Some industries require a master’s as a typical prerequisite for certain positions. This trend may be driven by the need for individuals to acquire targeted skills and knowledge, as well as the growing complexity of various industries.

In-Demand Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree  Master’s Degree Fast Facts
Typical time to complete: Usually or 1 or 2 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree  Formats: Online, hybrid, on-campus  Fastest-Growing Occupations Requiring a Master’s Degree, 2021:  Nurse practitioners 
46%  Statisticians
31%  Physician assistant
28%  Epidemiologist
26%  TIE: Speech-language pathologist
Computer and information research scientist
21%

The good news is that many jobs requiring a master’s are in high demand. In this article, we explore the top 10 in-demand careers that require a master’s degree and provide information about which industries these careers are in most demand. The rankings that follow are based on the number of projected jobs in 2032, not growth rate. See the infographic for information about the fastest-growing jobs that require a master’s degree.

Also make sure to check out our article 10 Top-Paying Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree.”

Top 10 In-Demand Careers

1 Computer Support Specialist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Computer Support Specialists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Computer Systems Design and Related Services 160,800$59,700
Employment Services43,800$55,230
Management of Companies and Enterprises38,150$62,970 
Elementary and Secondary Schools 35,360 $54,450
Software Publishers 29,570 $70,960 

What They Do:

Provide technical support to computer users; maintain networks

Employment, 2022

914,100

Projected employment, 2032

963,300

2 Preschool Teacher


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Preschool Teachers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Child Care Services 290,870$34,480
Elementary and Secondary Schools75,700$53,200
Individual and Family Services 12,530$39,470
Religious Organizations 7,240$40,960
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 6,490$45,140

What they do:

Care for and teach basic skills to children who have not yet entered kindergarten

Employment, 2022

512,300

Projected employment, 2032

529,600

3Paralegal/Legal Assistant


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Paralegals and Legal Assistants, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Legal Services 263,170$60,570 
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 16,420$61,190 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 15,080 $76,310 
State Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 10,850 $52,900 
Management of Companies and Enterprises 6,890 $84,260 

What they do:

Assist lawyers in conducting research, writing drafts and reports, and maintaining files

Employment, 2022

354,300

Projected employment, 2032

369,100

4Radiologic and MRI Technologist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Radiologic and MRI Technologists, Postsecondary, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals125,430 $71,260 
Offices of Physicians 40,390 $62,220 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 16,060 $70,460 
Outpatient Care Centers 15,050 $81,530 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 5,980 $78,160 

What they do:

Perform diagnostic tests on patients with equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners; adjust and maintain equipment

Employment, 2022

264,100

Projected employment, 2031

279,600

5Dental Hygienist


Industries with the highest levels of employment of Dental Hygienists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Dentists 203,330$85,110
Employment Services 2,630$88,670
Offices of Physicians 2,080$77,070
Outpatient Care Centers 1,850$86,580
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 870$69,450

What they do:

Clean and polish teeth, look for dental disease, educate patients about oral health

Employment, 2022

219,400

Projected employment, 2032

235,700

6Physical Therapist Assistant/Aide


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Other Health Practitioners 44,900 $59,970 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 17,640 $63,430 
Home Health Care Services 11,810 $78,360 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 8,950 $72,800 
Offices of Physicians 4,810 $59,310 

Typical entry-level education

Master’s degree in social work

Employment, 2022

145,100

Projected employment, 2032

172,700

7Diagnostic Medical Sonographer


Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 45,770 $84,340 
Offices of Physicians 20,220 $82,890 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 8,510 $78,190 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,240 $113,680 
Employment Services 920 $79,550 

What they do:

Conduct tests and create images using sonography equipment

Employment, 2022

142,800

Projected employment, 2032

156,900

8Respiratory Therapist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Respiratory Therapists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 97,800$74,240 
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals 7,720 $72,600 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 4,950 $69,770 
Employment Services 3,280 $108,330
Professional and Commercial Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 2,490 $63,610 

What they do:

Master’s degree from a physician assistant program

Employment, 2022

133,100

Projected employment, 2032

149,800

9Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologist/Technician


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Veterinary Technologists and Technicians, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Veterinary and Photography Services 109,230 $40,300  
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 2,850 $47,680 
Social Advocacy Organizations 2,200 $39,310 
Other Personal Services 1,560 $39,180 
Scientific Research and Development Services 740 $62,030 

What they do:

Aid veterinarians in conducting tests, examining, and caring for animals

Employment, 2022

122,900

Projected employment, 2032

148,100

10Medical Equipment Repairer


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Medical Equipment Repairers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Elementary and Secondary Schools24,070 $63,790 
Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance 10,770 $59,060 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 6,630 $71,320 
Rental and leasing services (5322, 5323, and 5324 only) 4,180 $43,500 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,600 $56,280 

What they do:

Repair and maintain medical equipment such as ventilators, anesthesia machines, electric wheelchairs, and hospital beds

Employment, 2022

66,400

Projected employment, 2032

75,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: https://www.bls.gov/

Based on national data, not school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary. Accessed 8/9/2023. 

10 Top-Paying Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree

 

There are many reasons to pursue a master’s degree: to enhance your career, open the door to new opportunities, gain a competitive edge in the job market, build a professional network, and expand your skill set. These may be reasons enough for you to invest in earning a master’s degree, but one other benefit might help you solidify your decision: increased earning potential. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that in 2021, the median annual salary for those who hold a master’s degree was $26,884 more than that of the average of all workers.1 In addition, many jobs that require a master’s degree command higher pay than those that don’t: nearly half of the occupations listed by the BLS as requiring a master’s have salaries of $80,000 or more. 

Top-Paying Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree  Typical time to complete: Usually or 1 or 2 years of full-time academic study beyond a bachelor’s degree  Formats: Online, hybrid, on-campus   Most common master’s degrees earned, 2021:  
Business: 202,334 
Education: 153,756 
Health professions and related programs: 142,025 
Computer and information sciences and support services: 54,174 
Public administration and social services: 49,388

In this article, we list 10 top-paying careers that typically require a master’s degree at the entry level, as specified by the BLS. Note that there are a number of careers—some that are often higher-paying than those listed here—that may not require a master’s, but for which a master’s degree might be preferred. This could be especially true for those who have earned an MBA or master’s in a business-related field. Refer to the “How to Become One” tab on the BLS site to learn more about the requirements for a particular career. 

Also make sure to check out our article 10 Top In-Demand Careers Requiring a Master’s Degree.”

1 Computer Support Specialist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Computer Support Specialists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Computer Systems Design and Related Services 160,800$59,700
Employment Services43,800$55,230
Management of Companies and Enterprises38,150$62,970 
Elementary and Secondary Schools 35,360 $54,450
Software Publishers 29,570 $70,960 

What They Do:

Provide technical support to computer users; maintain networks

Employment, 2022

914,100

Projected employment, 2032

963,300

2 Preschool Teacher


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Preschool Teachers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Child Care Services 290,870$34,480
Elementary and Secondary Schools75,700$53,200
Individual and Family Services 12,530$39,470
Religious Organizations 7,240$40,960
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 6,490$45,140

What they do:

Care for and teach basic skills to children who have not yet entered kindergarten

Employment, 2022

512,300

Projected employment, 2032

529,600

3Paralegal/Legal Assistant


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Paralegals and Legal Assistants, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Legal Services 263,170$60,570 
Local Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 16,420$61,190 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 15,080 $76,310 
State Government, excluding schools and hospitals (OEWS Designation) 10,850 $52,900 
Management of Companies and Enterprises 6,890 $84,260 

What they do:

Assist lawyers in conducting research, writing drafts and reports, and maintaining files

Employment, 2022

354,300

Projected employment, 2032

369,100

4Radiologic and MRI Technologist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Radiologic and MRI Technologists, Postsecondary, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals125,430 $71,260 
Offices of Physicians 40,390 $62,220 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 16,060 $70,460 
Outpatient Care Centers 15,050 $81,530 
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 5,980 $78,160 

What they do:

Perform diagnostic tests on patients with equipment such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners; adjust and maintain equipment

Employment, 2022

264,100

Projected employment, 2031

279,600

5Dental Hygienist


Industries with the highest levels of employment of Dental Hygienists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Dentists 203,330$85,110
Employment Services 2,630$88,670
Offices of Physicians 2,080$77,070
Outpatient Care Centers 1,850$86,580
Federal Executive Branch (OEWS Designation) 870$69,450

What they do:

Clean and polish teeth, look for dental disease, educate patients about oral health

Employment, 2022

219,400

Projected employment, 2032

235,700

6Physical Therapist Assistant/Aide


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Offices of Other Health Practitioners 44,900 $59,970 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 17,640 $63,430 
Home Health Care Services 11,810 $78,360 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 8,950 $72,800 
Offices of Physicians 4,810 $59,310 

Typical entry-level education

Master’s degree in social work

Employment, 2022

145,100

Projected employment, 2032

172,700

7Diagnostic Medical Sonographer


Diagnostic Medical Sonographer

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 45,770 $84,340 
Offices of Physicians 20,220 $82,890 
Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories 8,510 $78,190 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,240 $113,680 
Employment Services 920 $79,550 

What they do:

Conduct tests and create images using sonography equipment

Employment, 2022

142,800

Projected employment, 2032

156,900

8Respiratory Therapist


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Respiratory Therapists, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 97,800$74,240 
Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance Abuse) Hospitals 7,720 $72,600 
Nursing Care Facilities (Skilled Nursing Facilities) 4,950 $69,770 
Employment Services 3,280 $108,330
Professional and Commercial Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 2,490 $63,610 

What they do:

Master’s degree from a physician assistant program

Employment, 2022

133,100

Projected employment, 2032

149,800

9Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologist/Technician


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Veterinary Technologists and Technicians, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Veterinary and Photography Services 109,230 $40,300  
Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools 2,850 $47,680 
Social Advocacy Organizations 2,200 $39,310 
Other Personal Services 1,560 $39,180 
Scientific Research and Development Services 740 $62,030 

What they do:

Aid veterinarians in conducting tests, examining, and caring for animals

Employment, 2022

122,900

Projected employment, 2032

148,100

10Medical Equipment Repairer


Industries with the highest levels of employment in Medical Equipment Repairers, 2022:

IndustryEmploymentAnnual mean wage 
Elementary and Secondary Schools24,070 $63,790 
Electronic and Precision Equipment Repair and Maintenance 10,770 $59,060 
General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 6,630 $71,320 
Rental and leasing services (5322, 5323, and 5324 only) 4,180 $43,500 
Outpatient Care Centers 3,600 $56,280 

What they do:

Repair and maintain medical equipment such as ventilators, anesthesia machines, electric wheelchairs, and hospital beds

Employment, 2022

66,400

Projected employment, 2032

75,100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: https://www.bls.gov/

Based on national data, not school-specific information. Conditions in your area may vary. Accessed 8/9/2023. 

 

What Could I Do With a Public Health Degree?

What could I do with a bachelor’s degree in public health?

A Public Health Degree opens the door to a wide array of career possibilities. Opportunities span across diverse fields, including health services, environmental health, community health work, and biotechnician roles. A career path in the public health arena might lead to employment within health agencies. For those aspiring to advance, pursuing further education, such as a graduate degree, could unlock managerial positions within the industry. Public health professionals play a pivotal role in shaping public health policies, while others may contribute to health promotion through impactful social work. The O*NET resource provides valuable insights into the breadth of opportunities available within this dynamic and essential career field.

Health Educator and Community Health Worker

Within this field, a variety of roles await, spanning from health education specialists to community health workers and counselors, among others. The employment landscape for these professionals is equally diverse, encompassing environments like hospitals, government agencies, outpatient care facilities, and family services. Opportunities exist within both the public and private sectors. Drawing from data provided by the BLS, we’ve compiled insights into the 2021 annual median salary and projected job growth for these positions.

2023 Median Salary: $62,860 
Job growth through 2032: 7% (Faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

Medical and Health Services Manager

This profession is centered around managerial roles within an office environment. The positions falling under this category may carry various titles, with “public health administrator” being a common one. Often, these roles are open in both the public and private sectors, extending their presence across governmental agencies, outpatient care centers, medical practices, and nursing facilities. Using data from the BLS, we have compiled information regarding the 2023 annual median salary and projected job growth for these positions. 

2023 Median Salary: $110,680 
Job growth through 2032: 28% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

Occupational Health and Safety Specialist

This profession commonly presents opportunities across diverse sectors. Specialized roles and technical positions are often in demand. These openings can span various industries, encompassing manufacturing, hospitals, construction, government, and management services. The responsibilities of individuals in this role are crucial for ensuring safety at their respective workplaces, whether it’s a construction site or a government facility. Their primary duty is to uphold standards and ensure tasks are carried out safely and effectively. Utilizing data from the BLS, we have assembled information regarding the 2023 annual median salary and projected job growth for these positions. 

2023 Median Salary: $77,580 
Job growth through 2032: 13% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Associate’s degree

Social and Community Service Manager

The primary domains for professionals in this field encompass local government, religious organizations, family services, community rehabilitation services, and nursing facilities. These roles might involve managerial positions in various sectors and entail close collaboration with organizations to execute and realize plans. Using data from the BLS, we have compiled information regarding the 2023 annual median salary and projected job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $77,030 
Job growth through 2032: 9% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

Natural Sciences Manager

This career might attract individuals seeking to oversee teams of researchers. These positions typically span roles in research and development, manufacturing, scientific management, or government agencies. These career paths often require a combination of hands-on involvement and remote management. Drawing data from the BLS, we have compiled information regarding the 2023 annual median salary and projected job growth in this field. 

2023 Median Salary: $157,740 
Job growth through 2032: 5% (Faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

Management Analyst

There may be different careers in this field to consider. Management analysts may also take on positions such as business operations specialist. This job may be found in a number of areas including in the professional and scientific communities. Insurance, government and simply management are also areas where one  could be employed in this field. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $99,410 
Job growth through 2032: 10% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

Environmental Engineer

This type of engineer may work in many different fields. One area may include wastewater engineer. There may be many areas where they work including the federal government, engineering services, state and local government and management services. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $100,090 
Job growth through 2032: 6% (Faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Bachelor’s degree

What could I do with master’s degree in public health?

With an MPH degree, individuals may hold more advanced positions. They may conduct research or work on advocacy for the general public as a whole. Others with a masters in public health may work in health sciences and health informatics. Health administration positions in public health organizations or a related field may also be common. The MPH program may offer many options including these in the United States.

Mathematicians and Statisticians

These positions may encompass all types of careers as mathematicians and statisticians. Biostatisticians are just one of the fields. The positions available for this type of field may be those of management, technical consulting or government work. Many of these positions may be in the federal government, working in research facilities, and healthcare. There may be positions in education as well on all different levels. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $104,860 
Job growth through 2032: 30% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Master’s degree

Epidemiologist

A career as an epidemiologist could have different titles such as life scientist. There may be  many fields and areas in which one may work as an epidemiologist. Some of the areas in which one may have this career are in research and development, hospitals and government on all levels. There may also be positions available at colleges and universities as well as with all other levels of schooling on the state and local level. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $81,390 
Job growth through 2032: 27% (Faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Master’s degree

Mental Health Counselor

This career could encompass a number of different types of counseling professions. Some may deal with substance abuse, behavioral, or mental health. The positions available may be with the government, hospitals or family services. There may also be positions in this field with outpatient services as well as residential recovery facilities. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $53,710 
Job growth through 2032: 18% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Master’s degree

What could I do with a PhD in public health?

After completing your master of public health degree program, you may want to continue with education. Working in public health as a biostatistician or doing research in social sciences may be an option for those with this advanced degree. Public health jobs at this level may include coursework in a topic that is important to you. You may wish to do outreach.

Medical Scientist

There may be multiple areas for this professions including as a life scientist. There may also be many areas in which you could work when seeking this type of position. Some areas may include doctor’s offices, colleges and universities, hospitals, and medicine manufacturing. A career in this field may include jobs in or out of an office or lab, these are full time positions. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $100,890 
Job growth through 2032: 10% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: PhD

Economist

A health economist is one who may predict and determine how money may be flowing in the world of healthcare. There may be a number of areas in which to obtain this type of position in both the public and private sector. Fields to look at may include finance, federal government, research and development, consulting services and state government. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $115,730 
Job growth through 2032: 6% (Much faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Minimum of a master’s degree, doctorate preferred

Postsecondary Teacher

In this field postsecondary health teachers earn an  a median salary of $79,640 per year. These positions are held primarily at colleges and universities. These could be public or private and may range from a trade school, community college, junior college or major college or university. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $84,380 
Job growth through 2032: 8% (Faster than average)
Typical Entry-level education: Master’s level at minimum, PhD preferred

Hospital President or Top Executive

Top executives may be necessary in all fields to provide leadership for businesses or organizations. In the medical field these people may be in positions to run hospitals. The positions may be available on all levels in all fields. Areas to look into might include healthcare and government. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $103,840 
Job growth through 2032: 3% (As fast as average)
Typical Entry-level education: Minimum of a bachelor’s, PhD preferred

What Could You Do with a Public Health Degree by Specialty/Field?

Degree programs in public health may open the door for numerous opportunities. Public health professionals may work in research and data development. Others may work in nonprofit careers. Here are some degree concentrations to consider.

Biostatistics

This focus program typically offers careers in multiple fields. This concentration may be available on all levels from bachelor’s to PhD. The focus of this group is often to collect and interpret data when it comes to medicine and public health.

Research Biostatistician

This type of statistician typically requires at minimum a master’s degree. This field may work to apply data and statistics to solve problems related to health. They may look at varying factors based on the sector in which they are employed. Per the O*NET, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $104,110 
Job growth through 2032: 9% or higher (Much faster than average)

Biostatistics Professor

In this field as a Mathematical Science Teachers many may need a PhD. This is a position that may be available at most colleges and universities that offer this type of program. Many times these may be people who have worked in the field and may use real world knowledge to teach the students. Per the O*NET, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $81,020 
Job growth through 2032: 4% (Slower than average)

Community Health

This area may focus on awareness and education. People in this area may learn to develop and evaluate health programs for the community. They may also work to raise awareness regarding health problems.

Social and Community Service Managers

In this career as a community service manager you may work at providing programs and supervising organizations that are designed to promote well being. Many of these positions are through local health departments or governments. They may also be available on a state and national level. This typically needs at least a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $77,030 
Job growth through 2032: 9% (Much faster than average)

Health Educator

As a health educator you may be working to teach the community about health and wellness. In many cases this is a position through a local health department or in a school setting. These positions may be in the public or private sector and in many cases require a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $62,860 
Job growth through 2032: 7% (Much faster than average)

Dieticians and Nutritionists

As a dietician, you may work to teach people about nutrition and what types of foods they should be eating. You may also work with individuals to promote a healthy lifestyle and to learn what is the best course of action to improve their overall health. This position typically needs at least a bachelor’s degree and could be found in hospitals, nursing facilities as well as doctor’s offices. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $69,680 
Job growth through 2032: 7% (Much faster than average)

Environmental Health

There are a number of fields and concentrations that may be covered in environmental health. Zoonotic diseases, disease prevention and occupational hazards are covered. Living conditions and air quality are also topics that are covered in this concentration.

Environmental Scientist

As an environmental scientist you may work to protect the environment. You may also work to protect and promote human growth either in the field or in a lab. There may be positions available for this in both the public and private sector and this positions requires the minimum of a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $78,980 
Job growth through 2032: 6% (Much faster than average)

Petroleum Engineer

When working in the field of as a petroleum engineer, there may be need for those who are on the outlook for the safety and overall well being of the public. This may be where someone with a bachelor’s in environmental health could come into play working to not only protect the public. This type of position is usually through government regulatory agencies. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2021 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $135,690 
Job growth through 2032: 2% (As fast as average)

Mining and Geological Engineers

When working in the field of mining when it comes to environmental health you may be working to make sure that the mines themselves are not only safe but the work they are doing and the outcome of the work is safe for the environment and the surrounding communities as well. This position may require at least a bachelor’s degree and is offered both in the public and private sector. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $100,640 
Job growth through 2032: 2% (Faster than average)

Waste Management

As a waste management compliance officer you may work to ensure that the organization you are working for is following all governmental and company guidelines when it comes to waste production and disposal. The goal may be to work with the communities to ensure what your company is doing and is safe. This position may need at least a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $ 75,670
Job growth through 2032: N/A

Epidemiology

When studying in the focus area of epidemiology you may be learning about a number of things regarding human life. You may cover areas such as life expectancy, infection and disease. You may learn research methods, data analysis, as well as causes and solutions in regards to disease spread and prevention.

Epidemiologist

The position of epidemiologist is typically to investigate disease and injury. This position often requires a master’s degree and is available in public and private hospitals as well as in federal and state governments. They may look at patterns and causes of the diseases and injuries in order to make assessments. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth. 

2023 Median Salary: $81,390 
Job growth through 2032: 27% (Faster than average)

Global Health

In the focus area of global health one may look at health programs on a global scale. You may look at potential solutions for health issues on a worldwide scale. In this focus area, there may be comparing and contrasting the differing health systems around the world.

Policy Analyst

A policy analyst may be working as a political scientist to look at the different policies being applied to public health. The goal is typically to see how these are being applied and who they may effect and in what matter to best implement new policies. This may be a position that requires at least a master’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary:$132,350 
Job growth through 2032: 7% (Faster than average)

Global Health Consultant

As a global health consultant you may be working as a management analyst to help improve the efficiency and productivity in regards to health and wellness. When in this position you may be looking at things on a larger, global scale. You typically need at least a bachelor’s degree and may be able to obtain positions in the government, public and private sector. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary: $99,410 
Job growth through 2032: 10% (Much faster than average)

Health Education Specialist

As a health education specialist you may provide and mange programs in the community. These programs may be designed to promote health and wellness to many age groups and to many different backgrounds. This position typically requires at least a bachelor’s degree and is available primarily in local and state governments as well as hospitals. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary: $62,860
Job growth through 2032: N/A

Health Equity

When studying health equity one may look at the differences and disparities in healthcare and treatment among different groups of people. This is often primarily a focus in master’s programs.

Food Scientist

A food scientist may work primarily in the agriculture industry. The goal is typically to improve safety and efficiency. The positions may be available in the public and private sector or with different government agencies and require at least a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary: $82,090
Job growth through 2032: 6% (Faster than average)

Health and Human Services

Group Home Administrator

As a group home administrator you may work with the organization you are working with to manage the business activities of the group home. You may be working as the health services manager for this organization and may need to have at least a bachelor’s degree. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary: $110,680 
Job growth through 2032: 28% (Much faster than average)

Social Worker

As a social worker you may be asked to counsel and assist those with mental, and physical health ailments in order to aid in providing assistance and solutions to solve these issues. This position typically requires a bachelor’s degree and is available at all levels of government as well as in the private sector. Per the BLS, we compiled the 2023 annual median salary and job growth.

2023 Median Salary:$58,380
Job growth through 2032: 7% (Much faster than average)

Accounting vs Finance Degree Programs

Comparing a degree program in accounting vs finance could hold significant importance. Beyond the role of an accountant, an accounting career might encompass broader aspects, including engagement with financial planning. Notably, accounting majors can diverge significantly from their finance counterparts, which possess an equal allure for certain individuals.

Within the realm of business degrees, finance and accounting are two distinctive components, each bearing its unique traits. Both, however, bestow considerable value upon those who pursue them, ultimately aiming to enhance a company’s operational efficiency. Moreover, some of these programs also delve into the realm of personal finance management.

Accounting often exhibits a laser-like focus, honing in on specific financial facets, while finance casts a wider net, addressing a broader array of topics. Many students find merit in exploring elements from both these domains, crafting an educational experience that aligns with their career aspirations. It’s imperative to assess your specific job prospects and career ambitions, and this examination of the distinctions between accounting and finance degree paths can guide you toward achieving your goals.

Accounting Degree Programs

The essence of accounting degree programs lies in their emphasis on mathematics and numerical proficiency. These programs often encompass the realms of financial reporting and risk management through data analysis. Accountants play a pivotal role in the collection and meticulous organization of data, while others within this field are more inclined to decipher the implications of that data.

Such degrees in accounting serve as foundational platforms for a multitude of specialized careers. Frequently, they involve the intricate analysis of data, leveraging financial information to assess a company’s fiscal well-being. This extends to areas like bookkeeping, as well as more advanced functions such as crafting balance sheets and income statements, even encompassing the dynamics of cash flow.

In the pursuit of this field, you’ll find yourself delving into historical records and utilizing real-time reports to construct this invaluable data. Accounting programs often center on the creation of information, distinguishing them from their finance counterparts. This meticulously crafted information plays a crucial role in upholding accountability and significantly shapes a company’s decision-making processes.

Many types of accounting degree programs exist. You may want to consider more than one. Some options include these:

  • (BAcc) Bachelor of Accountancy
  • (BA or ACC) Bachelor of Arts in Accounting
  • Bachelor of Science in Accounting

Many may start pursuing work with a bachelor’s degree. You may go further. You may spend several more years learning. Some of the grad program options include these:

  • Master of Accounting (MAcc)
  • Master of Science in Accounting (MSA)

Students may learn the basics of the degree they choose. Then, they may choose a concentration that interests them. They may also choose electives. This may give you more room to expand your degree. You may even take some finance courses.

Finance Degree Programs

A finance degree stands notably apart from its accounting counterpart. Tailored to individuals seeking diverse career avenues, this degree proffers its assistance across a spectrum of professions—spanning the realms of banking and consultancy. Finance programs pivot towards the art of making astute investment decisions. In this arena, practitioners adeptly wield data to shape and substantiate choices, facilitating enterprises in cultivating profitability and often architecting strategies for robust expansion.

Within these programs lies a critical task—scrutinizing and deciphering information and data. This endeavor encompasses a meticulous evaluation, ascertaining the sagacious employment of funds. Consequently, the role extends to guiding enterprises toward strategic alterations. The process involves the craft of devising success-fostering strategies, frequently rooted in the bedrock of accountancy data.

Finance majors chart a specialized course that distinctly diverges from their accounting counterparts. Their focal point revolves around the universe of investments, which may encompass the intricate domain of stock ventures. Alternatively, some channel their energies into the intricate landscape of financial analysis tailored for corporate entities.

There are typically several finance degree program options. Consider a few different ones. Choose that which applies to the work you want to do.

  • (BA/F) Bachelor of Arts in Finance
  • (BSc/F) Bachelor of Science in Finance

You may go on to a grad degree. Many students do this. It helps them focus their education. You may need to do this for some positions. It may provide more advanced education. Some of the grad school options include:

  • (MSF) Master of Science in Finance
  • (M.Fin) Master of Finance
  • (MAF) Master of Applied Finance
  • (MFE) Master of Financial Economics

Accounting vs Finance Degree Programs

Finance vs. accounting degree programs may be very different. Higher education may help you meet your goals in either field. Concentrations matter. Take a look at this chart. It shows some of the differences you may expect. Which degree path is best for you?

ProgramsAccountingFinance
Designed ForStudents who are looking to become accountantsStudents looking to get into the field of finance
CoursesAccounting, Cost Accounting, Accounting Information SystemsIntroduction to Corporate Finance, Investment Analysis and Management, Financial Management
Career Path OptionsCertified Pubic Accountant, Government Accountant, Internal AuditorCredit Analyst, Finance Officer, Financial Advisor, Financial Planner
CertificationsCertified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Management Accountant (CMA), Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)Certified Financial Analyst (CFA), Certified Financial Services Auditor (CFSA)

Which Degree Program May Be Perfect for You?

There are many options. Finding one perfect for you may be a challenge. You may love math. You may love people. Some in this field may enjoy creating financial goals. Others might like managing finances. Both fields may offer some of the same skills.

You may do well in accounting in some cases. Do you like to work numbers? Do you enjoy spending a lot of time on data? You may want to help companies manage their budget. You may also be interested in tax careers. This field is likely to be very analytical. It’s typically all about gathering data and organizing it. You may do well here if you are a critical thinker. And, you may also do well if you like to solve problems.

You may wish to focus on financing in other cases. You may like to find solutions. Or, you may like to see companies succeed. You may want to work with people more than books. And, you appreciate the math, but may be more focused on results. You might like to plan and create strategies. Or, you may be interested in economics. You may want to work in areas of investment. You may want to help start businesses.

What about your skills?

Accounting degree programs typically focus heavily on math and statistics. You might need to be willing to learn accounting methods. And, you may also need to be interested in following rules for compliance. You may also be the type of person that likes to interpret data. Or, you may learn skills in accounting principles that are complex. You don’t mind a challenge in that way.

The skills you need in finance are usually a bit different vs an accounting degree. You may need more critical thinking skills. You may also have to be able to make decisions. And, you may love to research and communicate with others. Many have theoretical knowledge. They are typically analytical people. You also may need to voice your opinion. Some in this field may teach others. They may offer insight into problems. They may develop strategies by thinking outside of the box.

It’s also important to think about your goals. Choose a career path first. Consider what type of business you want to work in. Think about the day to day work you may do. Accountants spend a lot of time with computer software. They analyze data. Those in finance spend more time with people. They deal with meetings. They may need to use technology to develop insights.

What may you pursue with an accounting degree?

Accounting degree outcomes may be numerous. Many pursue work with a bachelor’s degree. You may want to go further. A grad degree may be important to some people. Some degrees might require a special license or certification. That is true of becoming a certified public accountant. You may need more training to be a chartered accountant.

Are taxes interesting to you? If so, a career in tax is possible. You may need a certification. You may work in tax firms. And, you may also do taxes for companies. Some own private businesses.

International accounting is another area. You may want to help companies grow across borders. You may work in insurance companies. There, you may help with insurance claims. Government agencies hire accountants, too. They typically use them to balance finances. You may do this at a local, state, or federal level.

Your accounting degree may include a focus on working in a business. In this case, you may take sales data and record it. You may use software to manage it. You may track profits. Or, you may track expenses. You may help with ensuring accuracy in a company’s books. This may include balancing financial statements from banks.

What may you pursue with a finance degree?

Many people with a finance degree typically have a concentration. This may include corporate finance. It might be financial regulation. Some may work in areas such as behavioral finance. Financing modeling is likely another area. There may be many others.

Are you interested in helping to create money and build wealth? Finance degrees may focus on the “doing” part of business. Those in this job make decisions. They may also educate those who make decisions.

Most financing undergrad degrees focus on one area. Post grad degrees let students get more focus. They may want to work in banking. Some may work in financial engineering. Still others might focus on financial planning. The choice is yours.

The key is choosing the perfect finance degree. Consider the type of work you plan to do. You may do well in this field when you like creating plans. You may do well if you like to analyze data.

Courses

The courses you take for any program could help you prepare for your future job. There is some overlap in these courses. Here is a look at some of the courses you may take in accounting vs finance degree programs.

Common Accounting Courses

Accounting Information Systems

This is the study of business structure. You may learn how to collect and process data. You may learn about auditing. This course typically aims to focus on creating business reports. These skills help accountants gather data and make it usable.

Principles of Accounting

The principles of accounting tend to focus on several types of rules for accounting. This may include things like cost principle. It may include time period principle. You may learn more advanced concepts in a second course.

Cost Accounting

Cost accounting is a type of managerial accounting. It aims to focus on the cost of producing. Businesses use this info to make decisions. They also use it to determine profits. It may help companies improve costs and manage goals.

Corporate Taxation

This type of course typically aims to teach students about corporate tax. Corporate taxation is usually for federal tax reporting. It often teaches fundamentals. The focus may be on business taxes. Students may learn about the history and laws about taxes.

Common Finance Courses

Financial Statement Analysis

A financial statement analysis course may focus on reading statements. These are business documents. Students may learn to create them as well. It may teach what they are. It also may teach how to use data in decision making. Students may explore a variety of topics related to creating statements. This may include profit and loss.

Financial Markets and Institutions

A Financial Markets and Institutions course aims to teach about financial assets and markets. It often discusses the role of these areas in the economy. Students may learn about what financial markets are. They may explore concepts like levels of interest rates. They may also explore economy related skills.

Risk and Insurance

A course in risk management and insurance like this typically focuses on decision making. Students may learn how to identify risk. They then may learn how to mitigate it. That may be through the use of insurance products. Students may learn how to apply risk to financials. That includes for decision making.

Intermediate Corporate Finance

An intermediate corporate finance course may expand on finance skills. Students may learn topics related to business finance. This may includes using tools to manage this info. Students may learn about making business decisions. They may learn about working capital management. Many may take courses in multinational finance. This course often follows basic or intro programs.

Career Path Options

Degree programs may be important. You may need to know what degree and coursework is best for the career you hope to have. You may want to work in finance careers. And, you may be after a career path in accounting.

Employers may need people in both fields. Managing money and data is not easy to do. Software helps this. Yet, educated pros may make a difference for many companies. Many organizations need these professionals. That includes companies of all sizes. It also includes nonprofit organizations. Some work in government agencies.

Many types of companies may use both of these services. That includes banks. Building companies, insurance companies, and retailers as well. You may work in the public sector. You may work in an investment company.

And, you may use these skills to start your own company. This may take time. It may also help to have a more advanced degree to reach that goal.

Unsure where to start? Consider what type of work interests you. Think about your perfect job. Do some research. What type of education do you need? Which skills are important? Then, consider the details. That includes how much you may make. It also includes the demand for a job like you want.

Take a look at some of the jobs you may have in the United States. The information here comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).

Accounting Sample Career Paths

With an accounting degree, you may qualify for jobs such as the following.

Accountants

An accountant typically works to prepare financial records. They may work in businesses. Some have their own firm. They gather and manage financial information. This may include verifying accuracy. It may include examining accounting methods. They may work for banks. Some work for tax firms.

2023 Median Pay: $79,880
Job Outlook: 6% 

Bookkeeping Clerk

An bookkeeping clerk often works in companies. They provide bookkeeping services. They may also provide auditing services. Some provide basic accounting services. They help to produce financial records. They also verify accuracy in accounting. This includes looking over the financial books. They may help make decisions in financial matters.

2023 Median Pay: $47,440
Job Outlook: 5% decline

Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents

Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents typically work for government agencies. They may be tax examiners. Some work as tax collectors. Others may work as revenue agents. They may work to verify tax forms and records. They may also determine taxes owed. And, they might work with individuals and companies to collect taxes. These professionals may work for the United States federal government.

2023 Median Pay: $58,530 
Job Outlook: 7% decline

Financial Manager

financial manager is typically a  type of financial manager. You may work with direct investment activities. Some may develop investment plans for companies. Some may help to establish financial goals for businesses. They may often create financial reports. They may gather insights and make recommendations based on data. Many also help minimize risks. They may work for banks. Some might work within businesses. Others could work in insurance companies. Investment firms often hire controllers as well.

2023 Median Pay: $156,100
Job Outlook: 17%

Top Executive

Top Executive may be a Chief Financial Officer or (CFO). Their job typically focuses on financial strategy planning. They use data from the company’s books to make decisions and may develop financial goals. They may also create policies for reaching those goals. Some create financial strategies. They are an important role in many organizations. That includes smaller companies, too.

2023 Median Pay: $103,840 
Job Outlook: 6%

Budget Analyst

budget analyst typically help  to organize finances. They could work with public and private companies. They may help create a budget. Or, they may look at existing budgets to improve them. They may also work to pinpoint concerns. They are usually a valuable component of many companies. Some may work in universities. Others might work for nonprofit organizations. Some work in government agencies as well.

2023 Median Pay: $84,940
Job Outlook: 3%

Finance Sample Career Paths

Finance careers are numerous. They include these career path options.

Financial Analyst

financial analyst typically gathers information and develops reports. They may often work to create long term goals for companies. Some might work with individuals. They often create direct investment activities. Many spend time working to create financial strategies for people. They analyze trends. Many work in executive positions.,

2023 Median Pay: $99,010
Job Outlook: 9%

Financial Advisor

financial advisor typically works with people to manage their finances. Some may help people to plan their financial future. They may help them make investment decisions. They may help with asset management. Some might help with debt management. They may work in the insurance industry as well. Some may have their own business. Others might work in a private organization. Many work in financial investment firms.

2023 Median Pay: $99,580 
Job Outlook: 15%

Loan Officer

loan officer typically works in banks. Some could work with third party lenders. They usually evaluate loan applications. They may often authorize the lending of money to a person or business. And, they often recommend approval. They may gather data to do this. That includes application info. They may seek out credit scores. Loan officers may work for many types of lenders. This includes banks and credit unions. It may include mortgage companies. Some work in commercial banks.

2023 Median Pay: $69,990
Job Outlook: 4%

Securities Officers

securities officer may also be called a financial services agent. These individuals typically work to sell investments. They may work with individuals. Some may work within financial markets. They may deal with commodities. Some might work in financial organizations. Many work in financial investment companies.

2023 Median Pay: $76,900
Job Outlook: 10%

Financial Managers

financial manager usually work in investment firms. They may concentrate in stocks and investment strategies. They typically help companies develop financial reports. Also, they might create direct investment goals. Many may develop strategies for building finances for the business. They may work in banks or insurance companies as well.

2023 Median Pay: $156,100 
Job Outlook: 17%

Certifications

Sometimes, you may benefit from a certification. These show you have specific skills in an area of focus.

Some accounting certificates that may help you include:

  • Certified public bookkeeper
  • (CIA) Certified internal auditor
  • (CPA) Certified public accountant
  • (CMA) Certified management accountant

Some finance specific certificates may help you, such as:

  • (CFF) Certified in financial forensics
  • (CFA) Certified financial analyst
  • (CFE) Certified fraud examiner
  • Certified tax preparer
  • Enrolled agent

This is an offer for educational opportunities that may lead to employment and not an offer or guarantee of employment and that may help prepare students to meet the certification requirements of the field they choose to study. Students should check with the appropriate certifying body to make sure the program they apply to will help meet any certification requirements. Students should also consult with a representative from the school they select to learn more about career opportunities in that field. Program outcomes vary according to each institution’s specific program curriculum.

Business Majors in College

Many business majors in college exist. You may wish to learn to run a business. You may want to learn how to operate a specific area of business. Majoring in business in college is a common path. Some people may minor in this area, too. You may wish to choose an area that appeals to you. Then, work on earning a degree in it.

Business majors hold significant value for numerous companies. They play a pivotal role in recruiting and nurturing talented individuals who contribute to a company’s expansion. Your involvement could extend to strategic decision-making, leveraging critical thinking skills to mitigate potential risks. Specific roles might include financial management, personnel supervision, or product-focused responsibilities. 

Navigating this multitude of options can indeed pose challenges. To facilitate your decision-making, explore various business majors available in college. Opt for the one that aligns with your intrinsic passion and resonates with the potential tasks you’d undertake in that field. Consider your affinity for working with people, your interest in sales, or your inclination towards quantitative disciplines like mathematics. 

The range of options is expansive, reflecting the versatility of degree programs. These programs empower you to tailor your academic journey to your preferences. Let’s delve into an overview of some common types of business majors offered in college. 

Types of Business Degree Programs

Choosing the right degree to pursue in the realm of business offers a multitude of options. The selection of your degree hinges on various factors, often encompassing employer expectations and the value of practical experience. Here is a look at the various options you may wish to choose to pursue. 

Associate Degree in Business

Consider an AAS or AS, as a potential choice. An associate degree commonly marks the starting point of your educational journey. Within a span of two years, you can attain this degree, although some programs might have a shorter duration. Certain programs of this kind might be fully conducted online, while others could be accessible through local community colleges. These courses are typically foundational in nature, covering a range of subjects from broad to specific aspects of the business realm. This specialization often equips you with the skills to perform distinct business functions. 

An additional motive for pursuing an associates degree in business could arise if you’re uncertain about your preferred business domain. Some of these degrees encompass a comprehensive curriculum, providing insights into various segments of business, including accounting, business law, and leadership skills. This diverse exposure assists in identifying your areas of interest. It’s not uncommon for individuals to pursue a bachelor’s degree subsequent to completing an AAS, thereby gaining a clearer understanding of their optimal business focus. 

Associates degrees usually have a shorter duration, rendering them more cost-effective compared to traditional four-year programs. For many students, this presents an opportunity to mitigate educational expenses. Furthermore, there’s the potential for earned credits to be transferrable to other educational institutions. However, it’s essential to confirm this aspect prior to finalizing your decision. Should this be the case, it can significantly contribute to obtaining a more advanced degree while minimizing financial outlay. 

There are various types of associates degrees in business. Some examples of areas you may wish to explore include these.

  • Introduction to Human Resources
  • Customer Service Skills
  • Intro to Taxation
  • Business Analysis and Intelligence
  • Intro to Finance

You may be able to use this to help you work in administrative positions in companies. Some work in assistant management positions. Others work in sales support positions. Some go on to start their own business. Many may pursue more advanced degrees.

Is an AAS or AS Best?

An applied associate of science degree is a foundation program. It typically covers business principles. It could also help develop entry level skills. An associate of science focuses on general education courses. It may include business admin basis.

Bachelor of Business Administration

You may have more options at this level. That includes a Bachelor of Business Administration. It may also include a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. Some also may take a Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration.

Many bachelor degrees include general courses. They also may included advanced courses. This may include areas of math or English. These are skills many may need for business and a business major in college. Many offer electives. This lets a student concentrate. It may help them take courses they are interested in. Then, many may have a concentration focus. This may include a specific area of student. It may include business law. For some, it may include operations management. These programs typically take four years to complete.

The combination of these skills may help a person be valuable to a company. They also need soft skills. Many bachelor’s programs help with this. They may teach communication skills. They may teach critical thinking skills. Many may also teach leadership. These are often important in the business environment as well. These often are specific to the area of study. Those in operations or admin positions may benefit from strategic thinking. Others may need strong math skills.

Many bachelor’s degree programs may also offer other opportunities. This may include internships in companies. These may help students gain real world skills. Othersmay  offer case projects. Some may have capstone projects. Others may have apprenticeships.

Students could learn a great deal in a bachelor’s degree. They may use it to explore topics such as:

  • Business Formation
  • Business Law
  • Managing People
  • Business Finance
  • Business Marketing
  • Research and Development

Some may work in business management positions. Others may use their degree to start their own business. Some may go on to pursue more advanced education.

What’s the Difference in BBA, BSBA, and BABA?

A BBA is a broader focus. Classes may include marketing and economics. A BSBA has a more math focused curriculum. A BABA is more liberal arts focused. It may include more human management courses.

Master of Business Administration

A Master of Science in Business Administration is one option. A Master of Arts in Business Administration is another. The key to these business majors in college is that they tend to be very concentrated. Students may learn advanced skills in key areas of focus. Master’s programs tend to take two years to complete. Some are available online.

There are many options. Students may focus on areas such as:

  • Business Law
  • Economics
  • Human Resources
  • Finance

Students may work in areas such as supply chain management. Others may work as financial advisors. Some could also work as a financial analyst or in consulting fields. Others may work in areas of financial development. Others may want to move into related areas. This may include healthcare or product development.

Some students go on. They may earn a doctoral degree. It provides an even higher level of focus. Students may concentrate in this program. They may attend another 18 months to 2 years to complete this advanced education.

Different Types of Business Majors in College

Which business majors in college are perfect for you? A bachelor’s degree is typically the first step. You may be able to go to a business school. You may go to a traditional college with business majors. The decision making process may be hard. Here are some programs to consider. You may be able to get started on this degree right after high school.

Accounting Degree

An accounting degree often applies to many positions. Some may pursue a career as an accountant. These professionals could work in finance fields. They may work in a public or private company. This type of business degree may be a major or minor. Some may take this program as a part of a humane resource degree. Others likely take it with a business administration degree. Grad students may take it as part of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) program. Accounting majors may be very specific. They could be general, too.

Courses:

  • Intermediate Accounting
  • Cost Management
  • Federal Income Tax
  • Auditing
  • Business Law
  • Information Systems
  • General Business Management

Potential Career Paths: Accounting Consultant, Auditor
2023 Median Pay: $79,880 
2022-32 Job Outlook: 4% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 1.54 million

Advertising Degree

An advertising degree aims to teach students how to help market and sell products or services. Students may work in public relations. Some may work in advertising or marketing in private firms. In a bachelor’s degree in advertising, students s may develop critical skills. They may need strategic thinking. They could learn about mass communication. Some may learn journalism. You may take this program as part of other business degrees as well. Some students may minor in it. They may major in business law or public relations.

Courses:

  • Media Planning
  • Creative Strategy
  • Research
  • Media Planning
  • Law and ethics
  • Advertising campaigns

Potential Career Paths: Copywriter, Production Coordinator, Creative Director, Marketing Manager
2023 Median Pay: $156,580 
2022-32 Job Outlook: 6% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 389,000

Economics Degree

An economics degree may help you take part in the world of finance. Some people work for companies. Others may work for government agencies. They may help with decision making for investments. An economics degree often leads to working as an economist. Some people major in this field. This usually requires at least a bachelor’s degree. A master’s degree is often necessary for many jobs. This field is typically math based. Students may spend time learning about predicting outcomes. They may study business on a global scale.

Courses:

  • Microeconomics
  • Macroeconomics
  • Applied Econometrics
  • Game Theory
  • Principles of Economics
  • Microeconomics

Potential Career Paths: Economist
2023 Median Pay: $115,730 
2022-32 Job Outlook: 6% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 17,600

Entrepreneurship Degree

An entrepreneurship degree  may be a varied program. It is not just for those who want to start a business. It could also help those who wish to work in business management. Often, it aims to teach about business development. It could help you learn how to start a business. It may focus on growing a company. And, it may bring together many of the business topics in one program. This may include marketing. It may include business law.

Courses:

  • Entrepreneurial Marketing
  • Entrepreneurial Finance
  • Entrepreneurship and the Startup Methods
  • Entrepreneurship and Society

Potential Career Paths: Business Consultant, Recruiter, Management Analyst
2023 Median Pay: $99,410
2022-32 Job Outlook: 10% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 987,600

Finance Degree

Every business may need to manage money. A finance degree could help you learn how. This is a broad degree. Many people may concentrate in it through a master’s program. It typically aims to provide students with financial knowledge in various areas. Some students may focus in investment management. They may help make investment decisions. Others may turn to banking. Corporate financial analysis is likely another area. Global finance may interest some. Risk management is another area. Students interested in finance may have many career path options. Finance majors may range widely.

Courses:

  • Foundations of Managed Care
  • Business Project Management
  • International Healthcare
  • Asset Management
  • Financial accounting
  • Fixed Income Securities
  • Financial Management

Potential Career Paths: Clinical Director, Medical Records Manager, Office Manager
2023 Median Pay: $156,100
2022-32 Job Outlook: 16% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 792,600

Hospitality Management Degree

hospitality management degree is one often focused on teaching people how to help others. Those with this degree often work in hotels. They may work in casino management. Some also may work in food service management. They may learn about helping people to enjoy their experience. Some also may learn marketing. They may learn social media marketing. Many learn operations management. They may learn to run a hotel in many areas.

Courses:

  • Housekeeping Management
  • Hotel Front Office Management
  • Hotel Convention Sales and Services
  • Hospitality and Tourism Law
  • Leadership in Hospitality

Potential Career Paths: Travel Agent, Travel Attendant, Lodging Manager
2023 Median Pay: $65,360
2022-32 Job Outlook: 7% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 50,800

Human Resources Degree

human resources degree is a business degree. Some students may earn a B.A. in it. They may work as human resource professionals. Others may take human resources coursework to work in other business degrees. A B.S. in Human Resource Management is one path. Students may learn how to hire employees. They may learn how to build relationships in teams and may also ensure companies meet ethical requirements. They may use business data and aim to provide education to employees. And, they may help make business decisions.

Courses:

  • Human Resources Management
  • Principles of Management
  • Human Resource Strategy and Development
  • Total Rewards
  • Business Operations

Potential Career Paths: Human Resource Specialist, Human Resource Manager
2023 Median Pay: $136,350 
2022-32 Job Outlook: 5% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 191,600

International Business Degree

An international business degree aids in global business development. Students may learn how to market and build business on a global scale. They may learn about management. They may focus on finance. Also, they may learn about growth strategies. Ethics and law are often a component of this program many times. Many students could earn a Master of Science in International Business. Many could also develop analytic degrees. They may learn to make decisions in a business environment. Cultural areas of study may also be important.

Courses:

  • International Finance Management
  • International Marketing
  • Global Supply Chain Strategy
  • Introduction to International Accounting and Finance
  • Managing the Global Enterprise

Potential Career Paths: Management Analyst, Marketing Manager
2023 Median Pay: $99,410
2022-32 Job Outlook: 10% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 987,600

Management Degrees

Management degrees are a foundation. Many other business majors in college include management. Some people may just earn a bachelor’s in management. Others may go on to learn a master’s. Those who take these programs learn to supervise. They may learn how to manage company assets. They may learn to meet growth expectations. Some learn to use business data. This field may be concentrated. Some may manage finance companies. Others may manage manufacturing companies. Many may work as managers. Others work as CEOs or executives. Some students could have a focus in supply chain management.

Courses:

  • Intermediate Accounting
  • Cost Management
  • Federal Income Tax
  • Auditing
  • Human Resources
  • Business Law
  • Business Ethics

Potential Career Paths: Management Analysts, Accounting Consultant, Auditor
2023 Median Pay: $99,410
2022-32 Job Outlook: 10% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 987,600

Marketing Degree

Many companies often need to market. This is a way of telling others what products and services are available. A marketing degree could be very valuable. An associate’s degree in marketing is one option. Many students pursue a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Students may learn professional selling. They may learn marketing research. They may learn to use business data. Many students also learn consumer behavior. They may also learn about social media. They may go on to work in marketing firms. Some may own their own business. Others may work in large companies.

Courses:

  • Introduction to Marketing Management
  • Foundations of Professional Sales
  • Marketing Research
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Marketing Strategies
  • Marketing Methodology

Potential Career Paths: Account Executive, Media Planner, Brand Manager
2023 Median Pay: $156,580
2022-32 Job Outlook: 6% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 389,000

Operations Management Degree

An operations management degree is another business program. Many people may take this program to work as an operations manager. These people could learn how to lead others. They also may oversee operations in companies. This includes the day to day management tasks. It may also include making decisions for the company. They work to manage products and supply chains in some cases. Many may work in manufacturing. Others may work in office settings.

Courses:

  • Systems Innovation
  • Leading the Enterprise
  • Enterprise Planning and Implementation
  • Energy Strategy and Innovation
  • Organizational Leadership
  • Management Information Systems

Potential Career Paths: Compliance Manager, Manufacturing Manager, Office Manager
2023 Median Pay: $75,670
2022-32 Job Outlook: 1.6% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 359,640

Project Management Degree

project management degree aims to help students learn to manage people and projects. This may include learning to manage projects from the conception through completion. Those with this degree may work as a project manager. They may have to learn to work with people. This may include human resource management classes. They may also learn about decision making. They may have to balance project budgets. And, they may have to develop project plans. Many aim to help company leaders make decisions. They also may watch and control outcomes.

Courses:

  • Applying Leadership Principles
  • Operations Management
  • Assessing and Managing Risk
  • Project Management Tools
  • Procurement and Contracting
  • Project Leadership
  • Assessing and Managing Risk

Potential Career Paths: Construction Manager, Operations Manager
2023 Median Pay: $104,900 
2022-32 Job Outlook: 5% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 505,800

Public Relations Degree

public relations degree aims to focus on the relationship between a business and the community. Some may work in business. Others may work in government. Students often need a bachelor’s degree to get a job. These degrees sometimes pair with marketing or advertising degrees. Students may learn about media. They often learn about sales language. They may learn about human decision making. And, they may also learn a bit about psychology.

Courses:

  • Public Relations Principles
  • Media Writing
  • Communication Pathways
  • Public Relations Strategies
  • Media Law
  • Theory of Ethics
  • Public Relations Campaigns
  • Persuasion

Potential Career Paths: Marketing Coordinator, Fundraiser, Media Planner
2023 Median Pay: $156,580
2022-32 Job Outlook: 6% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 389,000

Supply Chain Management Degree

Supply chains aim to help products move from manufacturers to warehouses. They then could help to get them to consumers. A supply chain management degree is of growing importance. More business may be  done online. That may make managing these complex systems so important. Those who get this degree may help with that. That may include procurement of products. It may focus on production. In some areas it could focus on distribution or allocation. Many people work in the delivery aspect. They may learn to manage people. Many may work in high-tech surroundings.

Courses:

  • Principles of Management
  • Business Law
  • Financial Accounting
  • Managerial Accounting
  • Organizational Behavior
  • Integrated Project Management
  • Business Modeling
  • Transportation and Logistics Management

Potential Career Paths: Logistics Manager, Transportation Manager, Logistician
2023 Median Pay: $99,200
2022-32 Job Outlook: 8% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 127,000

Taxation Degree

taxation degree aims to prepare students to do taxes for individuals. They may also learn to do taxes for businesses. They may learn the current tax code. And, they may also learn accounting skills. Not everyone in taxation has a formal degree. Some may have a certificate. Those with a degree may work in companies. They may provide leadership skills to tax departments. Some own their own business. Others may work within larger tax firms. Some students may also get a finance degree. Some could go on to earn their CPA.

Courses:

  • Tax Research
  • Estate and Gift Taxation
  • Tax Accounting
  • International Taxation
  • Business Law
  • Cost Accounting
  • Finance

Potential Career Paths: Financial Planning Consultant, Certified Public Accountant
2023 Median Pay: $99,580
2022-32 Job Outlook: 13% 
2022-32 Jobs Available: 327,600

Direct Entry MSN Programs for Non Nursing Majors Online

Are you a non-nursing major looking to explore the world of nursing? Consider the availability of direct entry MSN programs online – a potentially perfect fit for you. This option opens doors to pursuing a career you truly love and could be the ideal way to jumpstart your journey in the nursing field. Embrace this opportunity as one of the pathways to enter the fulfilling realm of nursing.

direct-entry-msn-program-ec

What Is a Direct Entry MSN Program?

A direct entry master’s in nursing (MSN) program is for students with a non nursing degree who would like to pursue a career as a registered nurse (RN) or advanced practice nurse (APRN). A direct entry MSN program may be available for non-nursing majors online. These people may wish to work as a registered nurse (RN). Some may want to work as an advanced practice nurse (APRN). APRNs are those who earned their master’s degree. There may be a lot of options in this program. See which ones may work for you.

Does an MSN Need a Nursing Degree?

Some schools may require a nursing degree. Many may need an active nursing license. That may not be the case for all programs. Non nursing students may apply. But, all typically need a bachelor’s degree. This may not need to be in nursing.

What You May Learn in an Online Direct Entry MSN Program

Students may learn a great deal in these direct entry MSN programs for non nursing majors online. That could includes gaining clinical experience. A direct entry master may often provide significant concentration. Students may wish to choose mental health. Others may wish to choose gerontology. Many may also learn skills such as these:

  • Health assessments
  • Clinical leadership
  • Psychiatric eval
  • Forensic nursing

Nursing students typically learn a great deal. They may learn how to provide a safe environment. They may have critical thinking skills. And, they may help to hold leadership roles. Many may have good skills to communicate. They lead decision making. They may provide respectful patient care.

Some courses you may take include these:

  • Pathophysiology
  • Microbiology
  • Pharmacology
  • Leadership
  • Clinical experience
  • Disease prevention

Courses are many. Students may choose which interest them. Some may be  set by the program. Others may be electives. There is typically a lot of room for options. Some students may choose courses that interest them. This may be based on the job they hope to have.

How Long Could It Take to Earn My MSN Degree in a Direct Entry Program?

Direct entry MSN programs for non nursing majors online typically vary. Some may take 15 months to complete. Others could take two years. Part time and full time options usually exist. Accelerated MSN programs may be available. Some programs may need 30 credits. Many typically need 70 to 80. Previous education may play a role in what you take.

How Much Does a Direct Entry MSN Online Program for Non Nursing Majors Typically Cost?

Cost may depend on many factors. School tuition costs typically vary from one area to the next. Concentration areas may help individuals to earn more. These may cost more as well. Based on the type you choose. The cost includes many things. That may include tuition. There are typically lab costs and fees. Students may pay more if they live on campus. Others could  complete an online program. These may be more affordable.

Many may qualify for discounts. This may include scholarships and grants. There may be financing options available. More affordable nursing programs may be available. Some students may receive funds from an employer to cover the costs. Financing may help to cover costs. This ranges. Students may wish to talk to financial counselors for some help.

Could I Earn Both a BSN and MSN Degree as Part of This Program?

Some programs may offer a BSN degree program. This may be available after pre-licensure is met. That happens after the curriculum is complete. Other programs typically do not do this. They likely only provide an MSN. That may be available after completing the whole program. Compare schools. Some may allow for BSN and MSN at the same time. It may be possible to find what you need.

How to Check Accreditation for Direct Entry MSN Programs Online

You may gather info about any school. You must know the facts. Look for a program from the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education. This may be CCNE. Another option is the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing. Or, ACEN.

What Could I Pursue with a Direct Entry MSN Online Degree?

Students may typically enter a wide range of career paths. Many choose fields that interest them. This may include careers such as these.

You may aim to become a registered nurse. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics notes the annual median wage for a registered nurse was $86,070 as of May of 2023.

You may work as a nurse practitioner. The 2023 annual median pay for this field is $129,480 per year as noted by the BLS.

Some students may work as a nurse midwife. This is a growing field. The BLS reports it is growing at 38% through 2022-32. That is much faster than average. The 2023 annual median pay for this field was $129,650 per year. Another career path may typically include a medical and health services manager. Those in this field had a median annual pay of $110,680 in 2023. That’s noted by the BLS.

Online Direct Entry MSN Programs

Take a look at some direct entry MSN programs. These may be available through numerous schools in the U. S. Other options may exist. Choose a program perfect for your needs. Online programs offer flexibility. This is something today’s students may need. Our data comes from the NCES.

1 Azusa Pacific University


Azusa Pacific University typically offers an online program. You may work to become a clinical nurse specialist. This program may teach theory, policy, and bioethics.

Admission Requirements

A grad app is necessary. Students must typically have a bachelor’s degree. It must come from a regionally accredited school. GPA may also be a factor.

Accreditation

WASC Senior College and University Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $43,600
Grad: $17,330

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 99%

Average amount that is awarded: $27,474

Admission Rate

67%

2 Jacksonville State University


Jacksonville State University typically offers a program that includes emergency management. They may also offer a population health nursing program. There is a nursing education track as well.

Admission Requirements

Students typically must complete a bachelor’s degree. An online app is available for this master’s degree.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on College

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $22,716
Grad: In-State $17,640

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $10,123

Admission Rate

55%

3 Arizona State University


Arizona State University offers a program for grad students. Programs typically include advanced nursing practice. There may be several focuses available. Innovation leadership is one of them.

Admission Requirements

Students must complete an app online. They need to meet the requirements. Letters of recommendation may be necessary. A 3.0 GPA may be needed.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $32,193
Grad: $26,735

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 89%

Average amount that is awarded: $12,381

Admission Rate

86%

4 American Sentinel University


American Sentinel University offers flexible online programs. This typically includes a DNP degree. There are five concentrations for MSN degrees as well. Several learning paths are available.

Admission Requirements

Applicants must meet specific RN education levels. Then, complete the online app. Students with an RN license need to submit info to the school about it.

Accreditation

Distance Education Accrediting Commission, Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $10,800
Grad: $6,845

Financial Aid

Students that get financial aid: 133 students

Average amount that is awarded: $2,287

Admission Rate

N/A

5 University of Central Florida


The University of Central Florida offers several MSN programs. This typically includes a nursing and health care simulation program. Another is nurse educator. They may also offer a leadership and management program.

Admission Requirements

Students apply online. Program requirements exist. Students must meet academic minimums.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $22,467
Grad: 28,657

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 93%

Average amount that is awarded: $9,986

Admission Rate

44%

6 University of Florida


MSN students may choose from several programs at the University of Florida. An MSN to DNP program is one option. Online programs may be available for several nursing field degrees.

Admission Requirements

Grad students need to fill out an application online.. Limited spots are available. Students may need letters of recommendation to qualify.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: Out-State $28,659; In-State $6,381
Grad: In-State $12,737; Out-State $30,130 

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 92%

Average amount that is awarded: $10,555

Admission Rate

23%

7 Clayton State University


Clayton State University offers a direct access MSN program. This typically includes a family nurse practitioner program. Other focuses may include geriatric and pediatric fields.

Admission Requirements

Prerequisites apply to most course options. There is an online app. Test scores and transcripts are necessary.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $15,790
Grad: $12,625

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 99%

Average amount that is awarded: $8,529

Admission Rate

51%

8 Brenau University


Brenau University offers a flexible MSN program. That typically includes a family nurse practitioner program. Leadership and management is another option. You may obtain a Master of Science in Nursing online.

Admission Requirements

Students must meet prerequisites. They apply online. Transcripts are necessary. RNs with a license must provide info on that.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $33,275
Grad: $14,552

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 97%

Average amount that is awarded: $20,924

Admission Rate

87%

9 Illinois State University


Illinois State University typically offers an MSN path. This is through the Mennonite College of Nursing. It offers a BSN to DNP program as well.

Admission Requirements

GPA is one component of the app process. Students need letters of recommendation. They need to complete a full grad application.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 28,086
Grad: 12,646

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 97%

Average amount that is awarded: $11,619

Admission Rate

82%

10 Ball State University


Ball State University offers a Master of Science in Nursing. This includes a nurse educator path. Family nurse practitioner (FNP) is another route. Nurse administrator is a third option.

Admission Requirements

Getting started requires an online app. Students need to meet prerequisite courses. Essays and letters of rec may be required.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 28,766
Grad: 29,196

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 97%

Average amount that is awarded: $11,418

Admission Rate

69%

11 Briar Cliff University


Students may study a nurse practitioner program at Briar Cliff University. This program typically offers a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHN).. Adult and gerontology is another option.

Admission Requirements

Applicants apply online. The college of nursing offers limited applicants. Course history and transcripts play a role in this.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $35,534
Grad: $9,366

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 99%

Average amount that is awarded: $26,614

Admission Rate

Open

12 Northern Kentucky University


The master’s program at Northern Kentucky University is a fully online program. Part time and full time options may exist. Students in the nursing profession may apply. Concentration in microbiology is an option.

Admission Requirements

Students with a license may apply. Online applications are available. NCLEX-RN recognition is available.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 21,480
Grad: 16,044

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $11,275

Admission Rate

86%

13 Andrews University


The Andrews University School of Nursing offers an online program. This typically includes BSN pre-licensure. A DNP option may be available. There may also an available RN-BSN online program.

Admission Requirements

Students apply online. The nursing school requires prerequisites based on program selection. GPA plays a role.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad:$33,710
Grad: $28,440

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 97%

Average amount that is awarded: $18,557

Admission Rate

91%

14 Northern Michigan University


In the MSN at Northern Michigan University, students may learn primary care management. Policy and advocacy are also options. An advanced practice nurse program may be available.

Admission Requirements

Students need to apply online. There are several requirements. A current RN license is one requirement. A written description of goals is another.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 18,800
Grad: 15,056

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $9,385

Admission Rate

71%

15 Minnesota State University Mankato


Consider Minnesota State University Mankato. It typically has a post nursing masters primary care FNP GC. It also offers a Nursing Practice DNP. A baccalaureate path is available.

Admission Requirements

Students may complete a grad app online. Course requirements are necessary. Students may need to obtain letters of recommendation.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 18,860
Grad: 19,212

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 73%

Average amount that is awarded: $6,961

Admission Rate

71%

16 Alcorn State University


Alcorn State University has an MSN degree path. There are typically two options for baccalaureate prepared nurses. The Nurse Educator path is the most common. The second is an FNP program.

Admission Requirements

A formal online app is required. Applicants may need to meet testing levels. Licensing may be required.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $8,549
Grad: $9,263

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $10,386

Admission Rate

30%

17 Clarkson College


Clarkson College typically offers two MSN programs. There is the RN to MSN and an option to get a Master of Science in Nursing.

Admission Requirements

An online app is available. A minimum 3.0 GPA as well as an Associates Degree as well as other testing is required.

Accreditation

Higher Learning Commission

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $15,168
Grad: $12,546

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 77%

Average amount that is awarded: $9,554

Admission Rate

56%

18 Seton Hall University


Seton Hall University offers several program options. This typically includes a primary care NP. It may also include an acute care NP. This school usually offers a health systems administration route. The pediatric primary care NP is also online.

Admission Requirements

Admission to the program requires an app. It also requires meeting prerequisites. These programs are somewhat limited in availability.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $51,370
Grad: $36,110

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $29,443

Admission Rate

75%

19 Thomas Edison State College


The Thomas Edison State College MSN degree options are numerous. They typically include a nursing informatics plan. There is also a nursing educator and admin path. Students may need to complete 36 credits. This includes core courses.

Admission Requirements

To apply, students need to have a bachelor’s degree. It must come from an accreditted school. A GPA of 3.0 is also necessary. Other qualifications exist.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 8,598
Grad: $12,150

Financial Aid

Students that get financial aid: 30%

Average amount that is awarded: $2,520

Admission Rate

N/A

20 Mercy College


The nursing education path at Mercy College is typically extensive. Nurse midwife is one field. Another is nurse anesthetist. Students may have access to advanced tech. It also has a large simulation lab.

Admission Requirements

A grad school application is necessary. This may include GPA scores and grades from previous classes. Students may need to prove they qualify for the specific grad program.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $18,950
Grad: $17,238

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 97%

Average amount that is awarded: $14,789

Admission Rate

86%

21 East Carolina University


The Master of Science in Nursing path at East Carolina University is typically an extensive program. Students may have the opportunity to learn patient care approaches. Adult gerontology NPs are one path. Neonatal NPs, nurse midwives, and administers are other options.

Admission Requirements

Students fill out an app online. Students need to apply with credentials. This includes a license for some programs.

Accreditation

Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Commission on Colleges

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: 23,638
Grad: 20,807

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 59%

Average amount that is awarded: $9,020

Admission Rate

92%

22 Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania


The Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania typically offers a variety of course options. This includes nurse anesthesia, NP paths, and public health concentration. Programs may be  available for those who are CRNA, CRNP, and CNM license holders.

Admission Requirements

Students complete an online app to apply. They may need transcripts. They may also need GRE or GMAT scores for some programs.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $22,782
Grad: $16,726

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 90%

Average amount that is awarded: $5,685

Admission Rate

84%

23 Carlow University


Carlow University typically offers a Education and Leadership MSN program. It does not require a GRE or GMAT. Students may complete it in 15 months. This is full time. Coursework covers many topics in community health. Students who wish to be practicing nursing may study part time.

Admission Requirements

An online app is available. Students typically need to verify identity. They may also have to provide transcripts and previous education info.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $34,502
Grad: $22,110

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $21,732

Admission Rate

92%

24 Duquesne University


Duquesne University typically has several path options. This includes forensic nursing. Executive nursing leadership may be another. Family NP paths are available.

Admission Requirements

Students do not need a GRE to get in. This program is flexible for previous experience. Students need to provide transcripts and test scores.

Accreditation

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

Tuition & Fees

Undergrad: $47,146
Grad: $26,568

Financial Aid

% that get financial aid: 100%

Average amount that is awarded: $23,183

Admission Rate

74%

Vet Techs vs Vet Assistants

What Is the Difference Between a Vet Tech vs a Vet Assistant?

Vet techs and vet assistants may share some responsibilities and work closely with animals and veterinarians, their roles and earning potential differ. It is common for outsiders to assume these positions are similar, but in reality, they entail distinct responsibilities.  

Vet techs typically possess more extensive education and enjoy a wider range of professional opportunities. They may work alongside doctors in various settings such as research institutions, clinics, kennels, animal hospitals, and even with pets, livestock, zoo animals, lab animals, and military animals. On the other hand, vet assistants are often primarily engaged in administrative tasks within local clinics. However, as they accumulate professional experience, assistants may gradually assume additional responsibilities

Vet Techs vs Vet Assistants

Comparing Vet Techs vs Vet Assistants

Here’s a quick breakdown of the two positions in the fields below. Please note that the median pay is based on the national average.

Job TitleJob DescriptionEducation Requirements2023 Median Annual Pay Number  of Jobs in 2022
Vet Techvet tech may perform a variety of medical tests to diagnose and treat animals. They may also provide general animal care.Associate’s degree$43,740 /year122,900
Vet Assistantvet assistant may help vets, scientists, and other veterinary medicine professionals complete a variety of tasks related to the care of animals.High school degree (or equivalent)$36,440 /year114,800

Role of Vet Techs vs Vet Assistants

Knowing the roles of vet techs vs. vet assistants may make it easier to decide which one is the perfect path for you. As you read through the expectations, keep in mind how you would respond to each task.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UaDbCOfvgOM

Vet Assistant Duties

A vet assistant may pursue work directly out of high school. Families with cats, farmers with goats, and lab workers with rats will fuel the profession for years to come. Those who attended a program may have a head start, but much of what is learned is often through hands on experience. This is why it’s so important for assistants to dive into a new position.

Each veterinarian may have their own comfort level when it comes to how much they need their assistant to do.

But for the most part, assistants may be asked to perform the following tasks:

  • Provide basic care: This may mean feeding, grooming, bathing, or exercising the animals.
  • Safety checks: A vet assistant may need to keep things safe and clean for the animals, clients, and staff. This may include disinfecting the waiting room or washing surgical instruments.
  • Prep work: The assistant may prepare the room for a variety of medical procedures. They’re also expected to properly store everything away after the vet has finished.
  • Restraint: Assistants may have to restrain difficult or unruly animals. They may need to remain calm and professional under these stressful situations.
  • Admin work: Vet assistants may fill out intake paperwork and file document. They also may set appointments for clients.

Every clinic or hospital may have its own strengths and limitations. They may have to feel comfortable with the physical and emotional demands of a job. Working with unpredictable pets and animals involves plenty of pressure.

In short, this amounts to vet assistants being willing to fill in wherever they may be needed. On one day, they may be  asked to assist a vet when taking blood samples. On the next, they may spend the majority of their time setting up and dismantling surgical rooms. As a vet witnesses an assistant’s commitment to the job, the assistant stands a better chance of moving up.

Vet Tech Duties

Many of the vet tech duties may mirror those of the vet assistant. The duties of each vet tech may vary from one practice to the next.

It may be some combination of the following:

  • Restraint: Vet techs may need to prevent animals from hurting themselves. They may also need to look out for the safety of other people during exams and procedures.
  • Take X-rays: The technician may operate standard X-ray equipment. They may produce clear and readable images for the veterinarian to diagnose their patients.
  • Perform lab tests: Vet techs may run analyses in the lab. They should feel comfortable working with bodily samples taken for testing (e.g., blood, stool, etc.).
  • Monitoring: Hospitalized animals may need consistent monitoring. This way, vets understand how they’re responding to treatment. This means checking vitals, changing bandages, and alerting staff to major changes.
  • Prep work: Vet tech may need to get animals ready for procedures and set up surgical and exam rooms. They should anticipate common problems and work to prevent them whenever possible.
  • Anesthesia: The vet tech may administer anesthesia to animals during surgery. They may also need to track the animal’s response to the drugs.
  • Emergency aid: Technicians may perform emergency first aid to animals. This usually occurs when the veterinarian is unavailable. They may also be asked to come to the vet’s aid when needed.

Vet techs are generally given more job responsibilities. They may need to know how tests are performed and what equipment is needed for each procedure. They should be comfortable working in a lab setting and be able to run tests and analyze results. Also, they may supervise vet assistants and assign tasks. Time management skills may be important for vet techs.

Educational Requirements of Vet Techs vs Vet Assistants

This is by far the most important distinction between the two. A vet assistant may perform some of the same tasks as a vet tech. But the vet tech may have received higher education. A vet assistant might be hired without any kind of formal degree or accreditation. You should know that there are programs for vet assistants though. This may help an assistant become more qualified for a position.

Vet Assistant Education Requirements

Becoming a vet assistant may only require a GED or high school diploma, although enrolling in an Approved Veterinary Assistant Program can offer a competitive advantage. This program provides instruction on specialized tasks expected of vet assistants and often includes a requirement to pass an approved credentialing exam. The exam serves not only as an assessment of acquired knowledge but also as evidence of dedication and willingness to go the extra mile in pursuing a career in the field. 

The National Association of Veterinary Technicians in America (NAVTA) established the Approved Veterinary Assistant designation as a means of recognizing the valuable contributions of assistants to animal health in their communities. This esteemed training program by NAVTA is widely recognized and respected throughout the United States. 

Vet Technician Education Requirements

While veterinary technologists may require a bachelor’s degree, becoming a vet technician may not necessitate the same level of education. However, completion of an accredited program is typically mandatory. The coursework must receive approval from the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Vet techs usually pursue an associate’s degree, which can be obtained through a community college and typically takes between two to four years. In contrast, vet assistants typically aim for a certificate or program diploma. 

The specific registration requirements may vary depending on the state. Some vet techs may be required to attend school, while not all may need to take and pass the Veterinary Technician National Exam (VTNE). It is crucial to verify the requirements set by your state when seeking certification. Adhering to the guidelines established by the appropriate board or agency will ensure that you possess all the necessary qualifications for application. Licensing or certification may be necessary in some cases, while registration may suffice in others. 

Costs of a Vet Assistant Program

As mentioned, a vet assistant may be hired with nothing more than a high school diploma. For this reason, the cost of a vet assistant program is relatively reasonable. This is especially true if you may be getting through an online platform. The number of hours you may need to complete the course may be as low as 100 and as high as 240. Working online may give you the chance to make your own schedule too. This perk may come in handy for those with demanding responsibilities.

Costs of a Vet Technician Degree Program

A vet technician may need the proper education to earn their degree in the field. But the actual costs may vary widely, depending on the program a person selects. Shopping around and checking the reputation of each curriculum may go a long way. Check with different veterinarians in the area about which schools may get preferential treatment. This may help you decide if the costs of the degree are worth the rewards.

Is There an Alternative Route I Could Take to Become a Vet Tech?

It depends on the state that you’re hoping to work in. Alaska, California, and Wisconsin may allow you to sit for the Veterinary Technician National Examination. This may be without having completed the designated coursework required in 47 other states. The vet tech must may need to meet a number of requirements to qualify though. You must provide proof by way of documentation of the veterinarians that you’ve worked with. You’ll also need to show that you have 20 hours worth of class work. This may be obtained through a state approved program.

Salary

The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) conducts a comparative analysis of the job outlook for vet techs and vet assistants, juxtaposing them with various other career paths. This assessment aims to provide insights into the post-graduation prospects and career prospects awaiting individuals. 

The positive news is that both fields are projected to experience nearly identical growth rates until 2032. With a 20%-21% increase, the demand for these roles is rising at a significantly faster pace than many other career options. Job stability holds great importance for prospective applicants, and investing in either position can instill confidence in individuals. 

This upward trend in demand is often reflected in the higher earning potential of vet techs. In 2023, their median annual salary was approximately $4,000 higher than that of vet assistants. With a median annual salary of $43,740 compared to $36,440 , the value of pursuing further education becomes evident. The increased salary can make it more manageable to repay educational expenses. 

Job Outlook

Regardless of the path chosen though, both professions may have opportunities. Assistants might become certified in operating equipment and veterinary technology. Vet techs may take more classes in any given specialty (e.g., surgical procedures, nutrition, etc). Vet assistants may begin right out of high school before deciding that they want to advance to a vet tech. A vet techs might choose to go onto to be a vet.

As you can see the vet assistant and vet tech may share duties. But the veterinary career positions are different. You should choose between the two based on how much you want to make and how much you’re willing to invest in a vet tech program or the veterinary field. While a vet tech may spend more, they’ll also make more. Or you may choose to start as a part-time assistant at a veterinary hospital or veterinary practice and receive as much on-the-job training as possible. Check your state’s requirements to find out more about what you may expect.

Nursing Degree Levels

Nurses play a crucial role in helping patients feel well and provide clear communication during medical procedures. Skilled nurses also excel at comforting nervous patients and their families. However, the term “nurse” encompasses various roles, with nursing professionals having different degree levels and career paths to explore. Here are some certificates, diplomas, and nursing degree levels that can lead to a rewarding nursing career. 

Nursing Degree Levels

Certificate or Diploma

A Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) represents one nursing degree level and serves as an initial step in a nursing career path. CNAs possess essential patient care skills, obtained through a certificate or diploma program that trains them in providing basic care for patients. They often assist with daily living activities, transport patients, and maintain cleanliness in medical care areas. 

Who is it for?

CNA diplomas and certificates are suitable options for individuals looking to kickstart a career in nursing care, as they generally do not require a degree. Nursing assistants can begin with a high school diploma and completion of a certification program. 

Length of Time

CNA programs are commonly offered in community colleges, technical schools, and occasionally in high schools. The duration to complete these programs usually ranges from four to 12 weeks. Most programs mandate a minimum of 75 hours of combined classroom instruction and clinical education. 

What could you pursue with this certificate?

CNAs may work in a number of fields. Some typical roles and responsibilities include:

  • Working in senior care centers
  • Cleaning and bathing patients
  • Helping with toileting, dressing, and other activities of daily living
  • Positioning and transferring patients who are confined to wheelchairs or beds
  • Measuring vitals
  • Helping with feeding and meals for patients
  • Recording health concerns
  • Reporting health needs to nurses or doctors
  • Dispensing medication

What could you earn?

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for nursing assistants in 2023 was $38,130. For orderlies, it was slightly lower at $30,020. The field of nursing assistants and orderlies is expected to see a 4 percent growth from 2022 to 2032, which is about the average rate for all occupations. 

LPN/LVN Certificate or Diploma

LPN, or Licensed Practical Nurse, is another level of nursing degree available to nursing professionals. It is a certificate-level program that may also be referred to as a Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN). LPNs and LVNs often work in various healthcare settings, such as residential care facilities, hospitals, and doctor’s offices. 

Who is it for?

LPN/LVN programs are ideal for individuals who aspire to start a nursing career and progress beyond the nursing assistant role. Obtaining a practical nursing certificate can open doors to more advanced patient care roles. 

Length of Time

To become an LPN or LVN, you must complete a state approved nursing program. While each state varies, many of these programs require one year to complete.

What could you do with this certificate?

LPNs and LVNs work in many settings. They may be asked to: 

  • Monitor patients and take vital signs
  • Give basic patient care
  • Change bandages
  • Discuss care with patients
  • Listen to patient needs and concerns
  • Keep patient records
  • Keep patients comfortable
  • Help with activities of daily living
  • Report to registered nurses and doctors

What could you earn?

The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates the median annual wage for LPNs and LVNs in 2023 was $59,730. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $45,670, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $77,870. 

Associates Degree in Nursing

The first level of degree typically available for nursing is an Associate Degree in Nursing. An ADN typically opens the door to become a Registered Nurse. 

Who is it for?

Aspiring students aiming to become Registered Nurses (RNs) and embark on their career journey may opt for an Associates Degree in Nursing. 

Length of Time

An ADN program generally takes approximately two years to complete.

What could you do with this certificate?

Students who earn an ADN may be able to take the Registered Nurse examination to pursue a career as an RN. The ADN coursework typically opens the door to entry level nursing positions. These nurses may:

  • Assess the condition of patients and observe their medical condition
  • Record medical histories and symptoms
  • Administer treatments and medications
  • Create care plans for patients
  • Operate medical equipment
  • Collaborate with doctors for patient care
  • Help patients understand home care
  • Perform and analyze diagnostic tests
  • Help with direct patient care under the oversight of a doctor

RNs typically work in hospitals, long term care facilities, medical offices, and other locations where skilled nurses are needed.

What could you earn?

According to the BLS, the median annual wage for registered nurses in May 2022 was $86,070. RNs with an associate’s degree typically fall on the lower end of the pay scale. The BLS reports that the lowest 10 percent of wage earners in this field earned less than $63,720 per year. On the other hand, those in the highest 90th percentile earned over $132,680, but they usually are RNs with additional training beyond the ADN. 

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is the next level of degree for RNs. There are several routes to earn a BSN. Some nursing students may start their education with this goal, earning a traditional BSN degree as their first qualification. Others may begin as an LPN and then pursue an LPN-to-BSN program. Some might become an RN first and then opt for an RN-to-BSN program. Additionally, some individuals may pursue a BSN as a second degree after already attaining a degree in another field.  

Upon completing the coursework for a BSN degree, students may need to take and pass the NCLEX-RN examination. This exam typically represents the final step in obtaining RN licensure and commencing a nursing practice. 

Who is it typically for?

Nurses who are looking to enhance their careers could earn a BSN for higher earning potential and leadership roles. Nurses with a BSN and RN licensure are often the ones considered for administrative or teaching roles. 

Length of Time

A BSN typically takes four years to complete. Nurses who already have an ADN may add an additional two years of education to complete their bachelor’s degree. 

What could you do with this certificate?

With a Bachelor of Science in Nursing, you may be able to perform all of the tasks of an RN. In addition, you may be considered for:

  • Nursing administration roles
  • Roles in hospitals where a BSN is required
  • Teaching positions
  • Nursing consulting positions
  • Nursing research positions

What could you earn?

The BLS does not provide a specific breakdown of income differences between nurses with associate’s degrees and bachelor’s degrees. However, the annual median wage for all RNs is $81,220. Nurses holding a bachelor’s degree are more likely to fall into the highest 90th percentile, where the average wage is around $129,400. 

Master of Science in Nursing

A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) is an intermediate degree that falls between a BSN and a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP). MSN students often specialize in clinical concentration areas, such as pediatrics or women’s health. After completing these nursing programs, graduates may work as advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs). 

Who is it for?

The MSN program may be a stepping off point on the path to a doctor of nursing degree. 

Length of Time

It typically takes two to three years to complete a master’s degree in nursing. This is in addition to the bachelor’s level education and clinical experience.

What could you do with this certificate?

An MSN is necessary for careers as:

  • Nurse practitioners
  • Certified Registered Nurse anesthetists
  • Nurse educator
  • Clinical nurse specialist
  • Certified nurse midwife

What could you earn?

The salary of a nurse with an MSN greatly depends on their place of employment. According to the BLS, nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, and nurse anesthetists had an annual median wage of $125,900 in May 2022. Those in the top 90th percentile earned over $208,080, while those in the lowest 10th percentile earned $91,250. 

Joint Master’s Degree in Nursing

Certain schools may provide joint master’s degree programs in nursing, which combine an MSN with a master’s degree in another field, like business or health administration. This option could be beneficial for nurses who aspire to take on administrative positions rather than clinical roles. 

Who is it for?

For nurses interested in pursuing careers in policy making, community health groups, administration, or management, a joint master’s degree in nursing program could be a valuable option. This type of program can save time, as certain courses may overlap, while also enabling the nurse to earn multiple credentials simultaneously. 

Length of Time

Joint master’s degree programs may take two to three years to complete.

What could you do with this certificate?

The doors opened to a nurse with a dual master’s degree depend on the second degree earned. Some options include:

  • MSN/MHA: Director of Nursing
  • MSN/MBA: Chief Nursing Officer
  • MSN/MBA: VP of Nursing
  • MSN/MPH: Manager in Community Health Organization

What could you earn?

The earning potential of nurses with a dual master’s degree in nursing varies based on the role they take on. According to the BLS, individuals working as medical and health services managers earned a median annual wage of $104,830 in 2022. Those in the top 90th percentile earned an average of $209,990, while those in the lowest 10 percent earned less than $64,100. 

Doctoral Degree in Nursing

The most advanced level of education attainable in nursing is a doctoral degree in nursing. Known as a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP), it is considered the terminal degree in the field of nursing. Doctoral degrees represent the highest level of achievement available in the nursing profession. 

Who is it for?

A doctoral degree in nursing is for those who may want to earn a terminal degree in the field. Advanced practice nurses often choose this degree to open the many doors for their careers. It may work well for nurses who wish to practice fairly independently or who may want to concentrate in a field like midwifery or anesthetics. 

Length of Time

A DNP program typically takes between three and six years of nursing school study, depending on the level of education the nurse currently has. A BSN-to-DNP program may take longer than an MSN-to-DNP program. 

What could you do with this certificate?

DNP degree holders may serve as nurse practitioners. They may perform many of the roles a doctor would perform, but typically serve under a doctor. They may also serve as clinical nurse specialists. 

What could you earn?

The BLS indicates nurse practitioners earn a median annual wage of $129,480. Practitioners that hold a doctoral level degree are more likely to be in the top 90th percentile, which earned over $126,260 in 2023. Those employed as nurse anesthetists earned the highest average of $212,650. Hospital settings had the highest annual median wages, with $136,050 in 2023. 

Nursing Education Degree Levels and Career Paths

Nursing is typically a varied career that has many different levels. Often, nurses may start their careers with just certification, then advance through the different levels of education as they are also working. Here is a typical career path for a nurse who starts at the beginning and works through to the terminal degree:

Career Paths for Certificate Programs

Certified Nursing Assistant

  • $38,130 median annual wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Many start with a high school diploma and state approved certification program.
  • Certs may be completed in dual enrollment in high school.

Career Paths for Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN)

  • $59,730 annual median wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Many have a high school degree and a certification program.
  • Certs typically take one year to complete and require a nursing exam.

Career Paths for Associate’s Degree Programs

ADN Registered Nurse

  • $86,070 for the lowest ten percent in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires an associate’s degree
  • Many may earn the degree in two years

Career Paths for Bachelor’s Degree Programs

BSN Registered Nurse

  • $86,070 median annual pay in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires a Bachelor of Science
  • Many typically take four years to complete

Health Services Managers

  • $110,680 median annual wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires a BSN or similar degree
  • Many typically take four years to complete and require work experience in healthcare

Career Paths for Master’s Degree Programs

Nurse Midwife

  • $129,650 median annual wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires an MSN minimal degree
  • Many may complete with two to three years of graduate level education

Nurse Practitioner

  • $126,260 median annual wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires an MSN degree
  • Many may complete with 2 to 3 years of graduate education

Nurse Anesthetists

  • $180,840 median annual wage in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires MSN degree
  • Many may complete with 2 to 3 years additional education

Career Paths for Doctoral Level Programs

Nurse Practitioner

  • $126,260 for the highest ten percent in 2023 as per BLS.
  • Requires a DNP for this level of pay
  • Many may complete with 3 to 6 years of doctoral study

Vet Tech Career Guide

What is a Vet Tech?

A veterinary technician is a trained professional with fundamental medical knowledge and clinical skills applicable to animal care. Typically, they work alongside veterinarians in animal hospitals and veterinary clinics. Their responsibilities may encompass conducting laboratory tests, evaluating animal health, providing assistance during procedures, and performing routine wellness examinations on animals.

Pursuing a career as a vet tech can provide an opportunity to engage in the daily care of animals. If you possess a passion for animals and aspire to contribute to their well-being and happiness without pursuing a veterinary degree, veterinary technician education might be the perfect path for you. Let’s delve deeper into this field of veterinary medicine and explore the requirements for becoming a qualified vet tech.

Vet Tech Duties and Responsibilities

A veterinary technician’s primary job generally is helping a vet care for animals. This includes helping animals live healthy lives and protecting the happiness of an animal. Vet techs could be thought of as nurses in a veterinary setting. The duties and responsibilities a vet tech has may depend on the type of practice where the tech works. Their education allows them to do many jobs in a vet’s office, outside of prescribing medicine, diagnosing a condition, and doing surgeries.

Some of the specific jobs that may fall on the vet tech’s shoulders at a vet’s office include:

  • Administering animal’s medications or vaccines
  • Administering treatments in the vet clinic
  • Prepping animals for surgical procedures the vet performs
  • Evaluating the health of an animal through wellness checks
  • Holding animals down during exams or treatments
  • Educating owners on what to do at home to care for an animal
  • Performing routine, non medical care tasks, like trimming toenails or cleaning ears
  • Observing animals for signs of health needs
  • Performing x rays and other diagnostic tests
  • Helping vets and vet scientists with research in the field
  • Charting health histories for animals
  • Providing assistance during surgery or procedures
  • Giving animals anesthesia
  • Offering emergency first aid in urgent care situations
  • Surgical nursing care for vets

Veterinary technicians also generally work with a wide range of animals. In a standard vet’s office, they may typically see cats and dogs and similar small animal pets. However, in an exotic vet’s office, they may see birds, reptiles, and rodents. And, in a farm vet’s office, they may work on the farm with horses, cows, goats, and other farm animals. The work of a vet tech could be quite varied.

Veterinary technicians may also work in lab settings. When animals are used to test medications and products, they require humane handling and care. They may also need careful observation. Vet techs might do both. Their knowledge of animal health and physiology combined with their passion for animals may make them a good fit for this role.

Vet Tech Skills and Competencies

Veterinary technicians need to have a caring demeanor and enjoy working with animals. They must be able to handle animals carefully and treat them in a humane manner. They may also need to have a good bedside manner to help animal owners, especially during times when animals are in distress or facing serious medical issues. Some specific skills that help vet techs succeed may include

Good Communication Skills

Vet techs may need to be able to share their knowledge with animal owners and their coworkers. This requires good communication skills, especially when taking medical knowledge and sharing it with non medical people like owners. Vet techs also need to be able to communicate with vets, being able to respond quickly when the doctor needs something during a procedure.

Empathetic Nature

Pet owners are quite connected to their pets. They often think of them as family. Vet techs must understand this and be able to offer empathy to owners who are in distress because their pet is sick or in pain.

Physical Stamina

The job of a vet tech can be physically demanding. This job requires you to stay on your feet most of the day. You may need to lift and move heavy animals. You must be able to give the animals in your care your undivided attention throughout the day. Vet techs also risk injury on the job. Animals are unpredictable. Techs may get bitten or scratched. Those working with large animals and in equine vets can get kicked. Physical stamina can help you recover from these injuries more quickly.

Dexterity

As a vet tech, you will be asked to handle animals and medical equipment, often at the same time. This can be tricky. Having good dexterity is helpful.

Attention to Details

In any medical setting, including veterinary work, missing details can be a life or death situation. Techs generally working in laboratory animal settings must carefully evaluate the animals in their care. Maintaining accurate records and reporting issues or illness are critical to caring for animals. Vet techs must be detail oriented to do their jobs well.

Technical and Medical Skills

A veterinary technician’s job is a medical job, and this means they will need to be comfortable working with medical equipment, delivering medications, measuring samples, and using diagnostic equipment. They have to be comfortable administering injections or drawing blood. Learning how to use medical equipment quickly in the field is also important.

Emotional Resiliency

Some of the work of a vet tech can be emotionally difficult. Vet techs may need to administer euthanasia for a sick pet. They may witness and document animal abuse. These emotionally draining tasks require resiliency.

Vet Tech Salary and Job Outlook

Many individuals embark on their veterinary career journey by obtaining a veterinary technician certificate, which can serve as a stepping stone towards various paths in animal care. Depending on their aspirations, it may either lay the foundation for a future as a veterinary scientist or doctor, or it could be the sole profession one chooses to pursue. As stated by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for veterinary technicians in 2023 amounted to $43,740, corresponding to an hourly rate of $21.03. 

Veterinary technicians specializing as health technicians garnered a median annual wage of $43,740, while those employed in the field of education, such as in colleges and professional schools, earned a median annual wage of $48,850. The employment prospects for vet techs are projected to witness a remarkable 21% growth from 2022 to 2032, surpassing the average rate of growth in comparison to other occupations, according to the BLS

Education and Certification

If a career as a veterinary technician seems like a good fit for your skills, education is the starting point. This career requires post secondary education. In many states, it also requires certification and credentialing examination.

What Groups Oversee a Veterinary Technology Program?

Vet techs need to be properly certified for their jobs. Several groups assist in this certification. The Committee on Veterinary Technician Education and Activities, which is part of the American Veterinary Medical Association, is one of these. Vet techs must be certified. The certification exam comes from the American Association of Veterinary State Boards (AAVSB).

Education for Vet Techs

To embark on a career as a vet tech, the initial step is to acquire the necessary education. The CVTEA/AVMA, an organization responsible for accrediting vet tech programs, should be consulted when searching for an appropriate program. 

The foundational degree for a vet tech is a two-year associate’s degree. To prepare for this, it is advisable to take biology and related science courses during high school. Strong mathematical skills can also prove beneficial. If your aspirations lean towards becoming a vet technologist rather than a vet tech, a four-year bachelor’s degree may be required. Regardless of whether you opt for a two-year or four-year program, you will delve into various aspects of animal care during your studies. Expect to learn:

  • How to administer anesthesia
  • Biochemistry for animals
  • Nursing care for animals
  • Pathology for vets
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Anatomy and physiology for animals
  • Surgical care and nursing for animals
  • Common animal diseases

In addition to the in classroom, vet techs may receive clinical or on the job training. Some of the work these pros perform can’t be taught in a classroom setting, but requires hands on instruction. The AVMA requires internship or hands on clinical experience as part of their certified program. Depending on the school and the state, this may be called:

  • Internship
  • Externship
  • Preceptorship
  • Practicum

Regardless of the title, the goal is generally the same. These programs aim to give students the chance to practice what they’ve learned in the classroom under the supervision  of a trained tech or licensed veterinarian.

Vet Tech Certification

After completing a degree program and internship, you may need to be certified or credentialed as a vet tech. The rules for certs vary by state. Many states require their vet techs to take a credentialing exam. A common credentialing exam is the Veterinary Technician National Examination (VTNE). This exam takes four hours to complete. It covers 200 multiple choice questions. These questions cover the following areas of knowledge:

  • Anesthesia
  • Radiography and ultrasound
  • Pharmacy
  • Dentistry
  • Laboratory
  • Animal nursing
  • Surgical prep and assisting

To prepare, students could purchase a practice exam from the American Association of Veterinary State Boards. Before taking the exam, always consult your state’s vet tech credentialing rules. Upon passing the vet tech exam, you may receive your credentials as a vet tech. This makes it possible to start applying for work in the field and pursuing your career.

Similar Roles

A vet tech is similar to a few other roles. They vary based on income and job responsibilities. Comparing the differences could help you make a career choice for your needs.

Vet Assistant Vs. Vet Tech

A veterinary assistant is an individual who collaborates with a veterinarian but typically possesses less formal education in the field. They may acquire a certification in veterinary assisting or acquire their skills through on-the-job training. Due to their lack of formal training, these individuals usually do not engage in direct animal care. Their main responsibilities revolve around clerical and maintenance tasks, although they may assist in restraining animals during procedures. 

Vet assistants are often responsible for managing schedules and collecting payments. They may also handle tasks such as feeding and exercising animals, preparing and maintaining equipment, as well as ensuring the cleanliness of the veterinary office. Both vet assistants and vet techs are subject to state regulations, and the American Veterinary Medical Association provides a state-by-state comparison chart illustrating the specific duties each role can perform. 

According to the BLS, the median annual salary for vet assistants amounts to $36,440. Similarly, to vet techs, those working in educational institutions, including college campuses, tend to earn the highest median annual wages. Furthermore, the field of vet assisting is expected to experience growth, with a projected 20% increase by 2032. 

Veterinary Technologist Vs. Vet Technician

“Vet tech” typically refers to the role of a vet technician. A vet technologist is a different role, but with a similar name so they are sometimes confused. Vet techs typically have a two-year associate degree. Vet technologists typically have a four-year bachelor’s degree. The credentials are similar, and technologists may not have a specific credential depending on the state. It is the additional education that sets them apart. 

Vet techs and vet technologists may perform similar duties. The additional education of the technologist may open the door to pursuing roles with a higher potential salary or leadership positions. It may also provide the perfect foundation for a career in a lab setting instead of a vet’s office. The BLS indicates that technologists earn $43,740 as the median annual wage in 2023.

Online Nursing Degree for Non Nurses

Did you know if you already have a degree in another field you can still make a change and go to nursing school to get a degree in nursing? Numerous online nursing degree programs are tailored to non-nurses, providing them with a wide range of choices. It’s important to remember that many nursing programs, including online options, mandate completing clinical hours or a practicum in a medical setting. Here’s a comprehensive guide on how non-nurses can embark on a nursing career by obtaining an online nursing degree designed specifically for them. 

What is a Registered Nurse?

A Registered Nurse (RN) is a nursing professional who has undergone a designated nursing program and has successfully passed the necessary nursing examinations mandated by the state. If you are currently a non-nurse, not working in the nursing field, or lack a nursing degree, obtaining an RN certification or pursuing an online nursing degree could be a strategic career choice. 

CNA Certificate or Diploma

One possible path toward pursing a nursing career is earning a CNA certificate. This does not give you the credentials for an RN degree, but may allow  jumpstart your career in the medical field while pursuing additional education for an RN. 

What Does a CNA Do?

CNAs typically perform basic medical care and help with keeping medical offices running. They cannot prescribe medicine or perform medical procedures. They may be asked to:

  • Assist with medical procedures
  • Change or apply bandages
  • Prepare rooms and supplies
  • Clean rooms and linens
  • Assist patients with activities of daily living
  • Take and record vitals
  • Document care given to patients

How to Become a CNA

To pursue a career as a CNA, you must complete a training program approved in your state. High schools, tech schools, hospitals, and community colleges commonly offer these programs. You generally don’t need any previous training to enter a CNA program. Some CNA training programs may be available online, but all will have a hands on component that must be completed in person.

Who is it designed for?

A CNA certificate or diploma is perfect for someone who wants to transition to nursing from a non nursing background. The training aims to provide a foundation in nursing and medical care, and it could open the door to pursuing work in the field. Many may use this as a starting point to further education as they pursue RN degree.

How long could it take?

Training for a CNA certificate or diploma may take just a few weeks. One program run by the American Red Cross typically takes four to eight weeks to complete.

Income Potential for CNA

The Bureau of Labor Statistics indicates an median annual salary for CNAs and orderlies in 2023 was $38,200.

LPN/LVN Certificate or Diploma

A Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) or Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) is the next step up on the nursing career ladder. This is still not a registered nurse position, but it could assist in jumpstarting your career. 

What Does an LPN/LVN Do?

LPNs and LVNs work in healthcare settings to assist doctors and perform some of the roles of a nurse. This may include:

  • Keeping patient records
  • Reporting patient needs to RNs or doctors
  • Caring for patient needs
  • Helping with activities of daily living, like bathing or dressing
  • Feeding patients
  • Basic patient care, like catheter placement or bandage care
  • Discussing healthcare with patients and their families

How to Become an LPN/LVN

To become an LPN or LVN, individuals must successfully complete a suitable course or program, often offered at technical schools or community colleges. While some programs may have online classes, hands-on training in person is mandatory. Once the program is completed, aspiring LPNs/LVNs must take the National Council of State Boards of Nursing examination (NCLEX-PN), a required licensing exam for new nurses in all states. 

Who is it designed for?

People who want to practice as nurses, not simply assist in a medical setting, but want to launch their career could benefit from LPN and LVN training. For many non nurses, this is a first or second step on the path to an RN degree. It may provide higher earning potential and more graduate employment options than a CNA.

How long could it take?

The LPN or LVN training program typically takes about one year to complete. Nurses may choose certification in a concentration, which could add additional time to their training.

Income Potential for LPN/LVN Nurses

The BLS reports a median annual wage of $59,730 for LPN and LVN professionals in 2023. 

Associates Degree in Nursing

The first actual degree for a nurse is an Associate Degree in Nursing, or ADN. With an ADN, a nurse may be eligible to take the certification tests for RN licensure.

What does an ADN-RN Do?

A registered nurse with an ADN degree could pursue work in a hospital or clinical setting. They are often responsible for:

  • Assessing the condition of a patient
  • Recording health histories and medical care
  • Giving medication
  • Giving medical treatments
  • Provide acute care to patients
  • Consulting with doctors and lead nurses about patient care
  • Helping patients understand their home care plans
  • Using medical equipment to take care of patients

How to Become an ADN-RN

To pursue a career as an RN with an associate’s degree, you must find a college that offers an ADN program. Choose an accredited school that is accredited by the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE). Your coursework may be available through online programs or on campus, but all RNs must have clinical hours before they are eligible to sit for their RN license exam. After completing their nursing education, students must pass the requirements for licensure. These vary by state, but usually include:

  • Criminal background check
  • Clinical experiences
  • State board requirements
  • NCLEX-RN examination

Who is it for?

Someone who has no background in nursing but want to pursue a  career as an RN should consider an ADN-RN program. It could be one of the ways to earn your credentials as an RN.

How long could it take?

Completing the ADN-RN program typically takes approximately two years.

Income Potential for ADN-RN Degree Holders

The BLS does not break down income potential for RNs based on degree. The median annual pay for RNs in 2023 was $86,070. 

Bachelor of Science in Nursing

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing aims to prepare students for RN positions, but typically offers more in depth education in nursing theory and nursing practice.

What does a BSN-RN Do?

A nurse who holds a BSN degree typically performs many of the same roles as one with an APN degree. However, they may be more likely to be asked to perform leadership roles. They may:

  • Help with diagnostic tests
  • Analyze results from tests and labs
  • Teach patients and families how to take care of their medical needs
  • Operate advanced medical equipment
  • Set up patient care plans with the oversight of a doctor or head nurse

How to Become a BSN-RN

To pursue a career as a BSN-RN, you will need to complete a nursing bachelor’s degree program. Some students may start with an APN, then begin working, and then add their BSN courses. However, for those who do not have any nursing background, starting with the bachelor’s education directly may be an option.  to enhance your career. Online programs may make this a little easier.

Another option for non nurses who already have a bachelor’s degree is an accelerated BSN programs. An accelerated BSN program typically provides the nursing education without the general ed coursework that the student already learned. These accelerated programs are designed to allow the previous bachelor’s degree to count toward many prerequisite courses.

After completing the BSN program, a nurse will need to earn licensure as an RN. This typically includes passing criminal background checks, any state requirements, and passing the NCLEX-RN licensing exam.

Who is it for?

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree program may work for someone with no nursing education or experience, but who wants to pursue a career as a Registered Nurse.

How long could it take?

With no medical background, a BSN degree program usually takes about four years to complete. An accelerated BSN program may take as little as 15 to 18 months to complete. Online nursing programs may take less time if the students progresses through course work quickly.

Income Potential for BSN-RN

The BLS reports the median annual pay for all RNs is $86,070 per year as of 2023. However, those who hold a BSN degree are more likely to make higher income than those with an APN. 

Master of Science in Nursing

A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) degree may be required for advanced nursing professionals. It may be possible for non nurses to enter a direct entry MSN program, letting them earn this graduate degree from the start of their nursing career.

What does an MSN Nurse Do?

Holding an MSN degree could open the door to positions as an RN as well as a nurse practitioner. Some common roles filled by MSN graduates include:

  • Certified Nurse Midwife
  • Nurse Practitioner
  • Nurse Anesthetist

MSN nurses could pursue work in many concentration areas. They may also provide primary care to patients under the direction of a doctor.

How to Become an MSN Nurse

Many people who have an MSN start with a BSN and an RN license, but Direct Entry programs for non nurses could allow people with other degrees to earn an MSN. These typically require an undergrad degree in another field, but may cover basic nursing skills in addition to the advanced nursing practice common with an MSN. Many Direct Entry MSN programs are available with online components or as fully online degrees, with the exception of the clinical practice requirements.

Who is it for?

A Direct Entry MSN program may work for students who already have a bachelor’s degree in a non nursing field, but who want to change careers and pursue an RN. These programs typically include the necessary nursing courses to make up for the lack of nursing education on the bachelor’s degree level.

How long could it take?

Many MSN programs generally take between 15 months and two years to complete. Many may require clinical experiences or a practicum, but may offer online classes.

Income Potential for MSN Nurses

The BLS indicates the median annual wage for advanced level nurses is $129,480 in 2023. Nurse anesthetists earned the highest median annual salary of $212,650, followed by nurse practitioners at $126,260 and nurse midwives at $129,650. 

Choosing a Nursing Concentration

RNs may have the option to choose a nursing concentration with many nursing programs. A concentration usually requires them to study a particular nursing area more in depth. This may help provide greater job security and income earning potential. Choosing a concentration requires careful thought and answering these questions:

What interests you? 

Because your career as an RN may focus a lot of your time and energy on your concentration, consider your interests and choose one that fits well. Do you thrive on adrenaline? Then working in emergency care or trauma may work well. Do you love children? Pediatrics could be a good fit. This is one important questions to ask when deciding on your nursing concentration because your concentration may direct your entire career.

How much patient contact do you want?

What does the daily work look like for a nurse in that specialty? Does it fit your goals and interests? Do you want to work closely with patients or work in an office, and could this career path open that door for you?

What job setting do you want?

Do you picture yourself in a hospital or a doctor’s office? Does in home health care seem to be a good fit for your career goals? Different specialties may create different opportunities, so consider this carefully.

What salary is typical for the concentration? 

The median annual salary for RNs varies significantly based on concentration. The BLS indicates those working in hospitals earn a median annual salary of $88,430, while those working in residential care earn a median annual salary of $79,280, for instance. Research the career potential of the concentration you’re considering. 

What does your local job market need?

Unless you’re open to moving, you may want to focus on the demand in your local market. Is geriatrics in demand, or do you have a baby boom requiring obstetrics and pediatric nurses?

Do you love technology? 

If you love technology, you might want to focus in nursing informatics. This teaches RNs how to manage electronic health records.

Does the concentration require additional certs?

 Some concentration may require additional certification. Are you willing and able to pursue these in order to jumpstart your career as an RN?

Registered Nurse Career Outlook

Curious about the future prospects if you decide to embark on a career change and pursue your RN certification? The demand for registered nurses is expected to continue growing, particularly due to the aging population’s increasing need for nursing care. As per the BLS data for 2022, there were 3,172,500 employed nurses in the United States. Looking ahead from 2022 to 2032, the projected job growth is 6%, faster than the average rate. During this ten-year span, an estimated 3,349,900 new nursing positions are anticipated to be created. If you’re considering various paths to kickstart your nursing career, pursuing an online nursing degree for non-nurses could be a viable option. By completing the necessary coursework online, fulfilling your clinical hours, and passing the nursing examination, you can successfully initiate this rewarding career change. 

How Much Do College Professors Make?

How Much Do College Professors Make?

Ever wondered about the earnings of college professors? If you’re considering a career in teaching, you might be curious about their income. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median wage for professors stands at $84,380 per year, as of May 2023. However, several factors influence a professor’s salary, such as their experience, training, and educational background. While salary range is essential, it’s not the only aspect to consider when delving into the world of professorship. Many professors go above and beyond, engaging in scholarly article publications and conducting research. Those who complete graduate school often earn at the national average mentioned above. So, how much do college professors earn?

Types of College Professors

Many people do not know there are numerous types of college professors. They range based on the type of work they do. They also range based on their experience and how long they have worked for the school. Here are some types of college professors. 

Law Professor

Annual Median wage: $127,360

Law professors have a primary focus on teaching law, which encompasses various aspects, such as social justice and political science. Becoming a law professor typically involves earning a Juris Doctorate (JD) degree from a reputable law school and passing the bar exam. Some may have graduated from renowned law schools, while others might have a background in legal practice. Many law professors engage in publishing law reviews and contributing to legal journals as part of their academic endeavors. 

Economics Professor

Annual Median wage: $115,300

Economics professors primarily specialize in teaching business courses, with a particular emphasis on economics. In many academic institutions, a Ph.D. is often a requirement for individuals to become economics professors. These professors typically possess extensive experience in the field, often having worked as economics educators for a considerable period before assuming professorial positions. Many of them have also contributed to the field through publications in recognized economic journals and publications. 

Engineering Professors

Annual Median wage: $106,910

Engineering professors typically specialize in specific areas of engineering. For example, some may be civil engineering professors, imparting knowledge about the construction industry and city planning. Their expertise could encompass roads, airports, water supply systems, and other related fields. On the other hand, mechanical engineering professors may teach math and physics courses while also engaging with computer design and programming. Their role involves guiding students in understanding machine construction. Becoming a professor in these disciplines often requires a Ph.D. qualification. 

Health Specialties Professors

Annual Median wage: $105,650

Health specialties professors teach at all levels of health care science and medicine. Most of the time, these professionals hold a medical degree and license. (That may include an MD, MBChB, MBBCh, DO, MBBS, or BMBS). Many could also have some experience working in the field. They often have education credits to their name as well. Most often, schools require these professors to have experience. 

Science Professors

Annual Median wage: $100,690

These professors often specialize in specific fields, such as earth science, atmospheric science, or marine science. With extensive education and research background in their respective areas, they bring a wealth of knowledge to their students. Geoscience professors, for instance, typically hold a PhD, indicating their involvement in the research aspect of their field. Many academic institutions seek professors with published research projects, reflecting their active contributions to the scientific community. Moreover, some of these professors may also possess practical experience within their field, further enriching their teaching approach. Years of educational experience contribute to their expertise, making them valuable mentors for aspiring students. 

Physics Professors

Annual Median wage: $98,020

This is another science type of professor. These teachers will often teach at a higher level of science. They tend to have more advanced training, but also more working knowledge in these fields. This may include a nuclear or quantum science degree. Others may work in astro physics. Hands on experience is helpful. Most important is having a research study or to be published for scientific findings to work as a physics professor. Many may also have a PhD in their selected field. 

Architecture Professors

Annual Median wage: $105,770

Architecture professors may have worked in this field in some form for years. Some may hold a PhD in this area. This type of instruction is heavily science and math based. That is why this type of teacher often holds an advanced education in these areas. Some are published. Others are known for their innovation and successful projects. 

Business Professors

Annual Median wage: $97,130

Business professors are often versatile. They may teach a range of different aspects of business. Some may concentrate in one or more areas. This may include business management or marketing. Finance and accounting professors are also very focused. Many business professors have advanced degrees. This could be a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree or a Doctor of Business Administration (DBA). It also may be common for business professors to have working experience in some area. Many of these teachers could be published in academic journals. They often have a significant amount of experience in public events or academic conferences. 

Computer Science Professors

Annual Median wage: $96,430

Computer science professors work with students teaching programming and software engineering. They often have a lot of skills in this area from their own studies. Many may have a PhD. Some could have worked for industry leaders. They may have concentration in areas of information technology. Others may have experience in computer engineering solely. These professors may also be some of the leaders in their field.

Biology Professors

Annual Median wage: $83,920

These professors teach in areas like biology or zoology. They may often be published in research reports or may have conducted research studies. They may focus in specific areas of biology, though some are more general. Often, they hold a PhD. Biology instructors are often involved in research. Research grants and programs may help make this possible. Others might work with post doctoral fellows.

Chemistry Professors

Annual Median wage: $85,810

Chemistry professors may be very focused. Some focus on areas of macromolecules. Others are stereochemistry specialists. Still, others focus on biopolymers. These teachers often have advanced education and often are published. They may engage in research at the school they teach at on a routine basis. They may often be published in scientific journals. Many are involved in an ongoing basis. Some have industry expertise from having worked in the field. Many are education based.

Psychology Professors

Annual Median wage: $82,140

These professors teach psychology. This requires them to have advanced education in this area. Most may have an advanced teaching degree. However, many also have field experience. They may have worked in a clinical setting. Others are focused on the lab elements of psychology and research. Many are published in scientific or medical research studies. In their university positions, psych professors often run studies and participate in publications.

Sociology Professors

Annual Median wage: $82,670

These professors work in both the sciences and in psych. They often provide education to students on a path towards sociology, but also work with students in related fields. Many will be published in papers and working to continue to do this on an ongoing basis. Many are actively engaged in research. Their students often participate in it. Some will engage in field work especially in underdeveloped areas. Many have a working history in these fields.

Philosophy Professors

Annual Median wage: $79,930

These professors may focus on religion while others focus on strictly philosophical studies. They may also work in areas of business ethics and metaphysics. Often, these professors may have a strong history in research. They may become experts in one or more areas and generally focus in these areas. Philosophy professors are always exploring new thoughts and methods of doing things. That is why they have such a varied line up of courses to teach. They do a good deal of their own research and publishing as well.

History Professors

Annual Median wage: $82,140

History professors teach history courses, but also often teach areas related to this. Some will work in the field, such as in museums or even archaeology. Others will work in historical societies or hold memberships in them. They could become experts in history, often in a certain area or type of history, but many are also dedicated to research. Many history teachers are diverse in their knowledge base. They may publish books or articles on areas that are important to them or where they concentrate.

Nursing Professors

Annual Median wage: $80,780

Not all nursing instructors hold the position of professor. Many universities hire nursing professors for both hands on education and lecture related to medicine and nursing practice. They may work with undergrad or grad students. Often, nursing professors must hold a registered nurse (RN) degree. They may need a license as well. Many may continue their education to earn a doctorate degree. Some professors in this field publish in scientific papers. Others work to develop new technology or innovations in the field. Nearly all may have some level of on the job experience.

Math Science Professors

Annual Median wage: $81,020

Math professors focus their education in math and mathematical sciences. They may teach everything from beginning levels of math to in depth, advanced topics. Many will concentrate in one or more areas. This may include areas as far reaching as automorphic forms and game theory. Many math teachers are often working to advanced their field through research. Some are published.

Social Sciences Professors

Annual Median wage: $77,750

These professors often teach courses, but may also engage in research studies on college campuses. In addition to this, many also have significant fieldwork experience. Some may also engage in social science research in underdeveloped areas. They often have a PhD but continuing education is usually a part of their work.

Communications Professors

Annual Median wage: $79,910

Those working as a communications prof may teach a range of courses. This could include areas of public relations. It may include broadcasting or journalism. Many may have some level of media communications skill. In addition to this, most communications profs will have working skills and some experience in the field they focus in. 

Art and Music Professors

Annual Median wage: $80,360

Those working in the area of music, arts, and performance may have a significant amount of experience in the field. They may teach a range of subjects, such as theater or vocals, but many professors will focus in one or more areas. They often work hand in hand with students.

English Professors

Annual Median wage: $78,130

These professors teach various areas of English studies. This includes language and literature. They may also focus in areas such as creative writing or critical theory. Many will also have advanced studies and experience in the field. They often hold doctorates. Research may not be heavy in this area, but continuing education might be.

Education Professors

Annual Median wage: $73,240

Education professors teach new teachers. They teach undergraduate students and some masters programs. Some also hold a philosophy in education degree. Many are published in some way, often in educational methods. They may have experience working as educators.

Levels of Professors

Teaching higher education may be complex. While looking at university professor salaries is important, it is also important to consider the level of the professor. This could indicates the type of work the professor does and his or her experience. Here is a list of professor levels. They differ by school. A community college may use a different term.

Adjunct Instructor

Adjunct instructors often teach entry level courses. This may also be called a part time lecturer or part time instructor. Many do not receive a full time salary or benefits. They may work less often in their college program. Many will have additional jobs outside of the college setting. These instructors may go on to more advanced teaching later.

Graduate Teaching Assistant

A graduate teaching assistant is a GTA. They tend to work much like an adjunct instructor. The difference is that they are students themselves. Many will be in a master’s program. Some graduate programs offer students a stipend. This may help covers the cost of tuition and pays a small wage. In return, they may teach one or more classes. These are not full time faculty members.

Visiting Professor

A visitor professor is working temporarily at the school. They may be called a visiting researcher. Sometimes they are called a visiting scholar. The term differs based on the school. Some schools use these pros to help them offer a new perspective for students. They may collaborate with other students. In the U.S., it is common for visiting professors to be from another country. This is not always the case. Sometimes, professors on sabbatical may still take appointments as a visiting professor.

Assistant Professor

These individuals support the work of a professor. They tend to not work full time. They may help in areas of conducting research. Others may work with students directly. Working as an assistant professor could be the first step towards tenure. These are usually hard to get jobs. Many times, assistant professors already hold a doctorate degree.

Associate Professor

These are generally tenure seeking professors. This is often a tenure track position. It falls between assistant and full professorship. This may differ from one school to the next. Many professors reach this level when they achieve tenure. This may take up to seven years to complete. Publications and research are a part of the process. These are often full time faculty. They may earn faculty salaries.

Full Professor

Full professorship may often be earned after years of holding an associate level of tenure. This is generally the highest promotion for tenure track professors.

Endowed Professor

These professors may also be called an endowed chair. It is a type of honor given to a faculty member. This typically is due to the research carried out by the professor. 

Distinguished Professor

This is a title given to a top tenured professor at the school. They are often some of the most well respected in their field. Years of experience matters in this field. Private colleges often have these types of professors.

Medical Assistant to RN

Transition from Medical Assistant to RN

What is the quickest way to go from a medical assistant to RN?

Differences Between Medical Assistant and RN

The journey from a Medical Assistant (MA) to a Registered Nurse (RN) primarily hinges on the scope of practice. While these healthcare professionals may share certain administrative and clinical responsibilities, Registered Nurses often embrace a more comprehensive level of patient care, a dimension not typically within the realm of MAs. As a result, the paths of education for those transitioning from Medical Assistant to RN may diverge. 

Much like RNs, MAs have the potential to work in hospitals, medical offices, or other healthcare settings. Their tasks often involve scheduling appointments and recording patient information. Additionally, MAs may be involved in recording vital signs such as blood pressure and inputting patient data into Electronic Health Records (EHRs). Moreover, certain Medical Assistants also undertake fundamental clinical duties. Some of these tasks include: 

  • Conducting basic laboratory tests 
  • Administering injections or medications 
  • Providing wound care 
  • Assisting in preparing patients for X-rays 

Registered Nurses (RNs) also engage in the documentation of patient information and medical histories, similar to MAs. However, their role may encompass more comprehensive patient assessments. Prior to a doctor’s evaluation, RNs might examine the patient’s condition, noting symptoms and pertinent details. Moreover, RNs play a pivotal role in devising treatment plans and providing patient education. They may oversee Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) and, most crucially, administer treatments and medications to patients. 

For RNs in different areas of medicine, clinical tasks may vary. Here are just a few examples:

  • Critical care nurses tend to and monitor individuals with urgent or acute illnesses. 
  • Neonatal nurses care for babies who are born prematurely or with health complications. 
  • Genetics nurses engage in screening, counseling, and treatment for hereditary health conditions. 
  • Public health nurses contribute to public education about prevalent health issues, conducting screenings and outreach.

The paths MAs and RNs take to prepare for their careers can differ. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, RNs generally pursue one of three educational routes

An approved nursing program that awards a diploma

These accredited nursing programs are often available through hospitals or medical centers. Typically spanning 2 to 3 years, they delve into subjects such as nursing fundamentals, surgical nursing, and patient care. Alongside theoretical learning, students are required to complete clinical experiences, gaining hands-on practical skills. 

An Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN). Or, an Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN)

Compared to the diploma program, ADN or ASN programs are more widespread. Taking a similar duration of 2 to 3 years, these degrees offer comprehensive education. Nursing students delve into courses like anatomy, physiology, microbiology, as well as subjects in social and behavioral sciences and liberal arts. Clinical experience remains a crucial component of these programs, enabling students to apply theory in real-world healthcare settings. 

A BSN, or Bachelor of Science in Nursing

A Bachelor of Science in Nursing program encompasses the same foundational courses and clinical experiences as ADN or ASN programs, but with added depth. Expect to cover subjects like communication, leadership, and advanced science courses. This comprehensive program typically spans around 4 years. Already have an ADN or ASN and looking to further your education? Many nurses pursue a Bachelor’s degree through RN-to-BSN or RN bridge programs. 

MAs may also have a few education paths to consider:

  • Postsecondary certificate. The most common route, offered at community colleges, vocational schools, and similar institutions. This certificate program usually takes about a year. Coursework includes medical terminology, anatomy, lab work, and a mix of classroom or online learning.
  • On the job training. Some states lack strict education requirements for MAs. While many employers prefer certified or degreed candidates, some may hire individuals with a high school diploma and provide training on-site. 
  • Associate degree.  Degree programs in medical assisting are available, typically taking around 2 years and often offered by community colleges. Curriculum covers a range of topics from medical coding and health insurance to pharmacology and nutrition. General college courses like algebra and communication may also be included. 

Both registered nursing and medical assisting programs touch on similar subjects like anatomy and physiology. However, nursing programs emphasize clinical skills and knowledge, whereas MA programs focus more on administrative functions and general healthcare understanding. Each program tailors its curriculum to equip students for their respective roles. Therefore, MAs aiming to transition into the RN career path might need to address certain gaps in their education. 

How to Transition

Wondering if a Medical Assistant (MA) can become an RN? While the transition isn’t immediate, MAs can potentially shift to an RN career by pursuing further education, namely through nursing school. Although there isn’t a direct route from MA to RN, several educational paths can facilitate this career transition, including:  

MA to ADN or ASN

As an MA, you have the option to obtain an Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) or an Associate of Science in Nursing (ASN) degree. This path usually spans 2 to 3 years and might be the quickest route to embark on your journey to becoming an RN. If you already hold an Associate’s degree for Medical Assisting, you may have the opportunity to transfer certain credits, particularly general education credits. Depending on the program, you could even complete some or all of your coursework online. However, it’s important to note that nursing programs typically require in-person clinical experience, which can’t be replicated online. You might be able to fulfill these clinical requirements at a nearby facility. 

MA to BSN

Another viable option is to pursue a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN). This path can offer several advantages, as certain employers specifically seek Registered Nurses (RNs) with Bachelor’s degrees. Additionally, some administrative positions and specialized nursing roles may require a BSN. The duration of this pathway typically spans around 4 years, but if you have transferable college credits, it might be possible to complete the degree in less time. The feasibility of this depends on whether the nursing program accepts transfer credits. While many online BSN programs are tailored for current RNs seeking to obtain their Bachelor’s, you might also find regular BSN programs with online course offerings. 

MA to LPN to RN

An alternative route involves becoming a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN). This pathway generally requires less education than an RN, often a certificate or diploma program that takes about a year to complete. Opting for an LPN career path could provide you with a preliminary experience in nursing. Subsequently, you can progress to an LPN to RN program or an LPN to ADN program. These bridge programs are designed to build upon an LPN’s existing knowledge, facilitating a transition to an RN career. These programs might even grant credits for prior learning, making the process quicker than you might expect. Certain programs might allow you to complete coursework, excluding clinicals, through online platforms. 

Aside from educational requirements, you’ll also need to obtain a nursing license from your state, with specific regulations varying depending on your location. Generally, passing the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) is a prerequisite. Additionally, many states mandate background checks and have other specific requirements. To obtain comprehensive information, it’s advisable to consult your state’s board of nursing. 

WHY CONSIDER THE SWITCH? 

Both Medical Assistants (MAs) and Registered Nurses (RNs) play indispensable roles in healthcare settings, including hospitals. So, what prompts the transition from MA to RN? Here are a few compelling reasons to ponder: 

  • Potential for Higher Earnings. In 2023, RNs boasted a median annual salary of $86,070, while MAs earned $42,000. Clearly, there exists a substantial wage disparity. This considerable difference serves as a driving force for numerous MAs to pursue further training and education, aiming to tap into the higher-paying opportunities RN roles may offer. 
  • Expanded Responsibilities. RNs often undertake more complex and challenging responsibilities compared to MAs. Their role frequently involves direct patient interaction, including health education. Conversely, MAs frequently contribute in a supportive capacity, with some engaging in clinical tasks tied to patient care, while others predominantly handle administrative functions like appointment scheduling and record keeping. For MAs seeking to elevate their professional contributions, a shift to nursing might be a logical step. 
  • Career Advancement. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), RNs have the potential to explore further horizons. With additional education, such as obtaining a Master’s degree like a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN), RNs can progress to becoming Nurse Practitioners. This elevation opens doors to advanced clinical roles. Alternatively, RNs can venture into diverse niches within nursing, such as management, administration, and beyond. 

What Financial Aid is Available?

When considering the pursuit of a Registered Nursing program, financial aid can emerge as a pivotal resource. This is especially crucial if you are contemplating a transition from Medical Assistant (MA) to RN. Rest assured, financial aid options may be within reach for those who qualify. To navigate this realm effectively, a foundational step is engaging with the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). This application serves as a compass, guiding you to ascertain your eligibility for a spectrum of federal financial aid offerings, including grants, loans, and work-study opportunities. 

Federal grants a valuable form of financial support, are typically bestowed without the expectation of repayment. In contrast, student loans necessitate eventual repayment. However, federal loans often arrive with benefits that private loans may not extend. These advantages may encompass lower interest rates and the concept of subsidized interest, where the government covers the interest accrued while you are enrolled in nursing school. Additionally, the Federal Work-Study Program can furnish the prospect of part-time employment, enabling you to accumulate funds to support your educational journey.

Scholarships stand as another avenue for potential financial aid. Within this landscape, both nursing schools and external organizations proffer scholarships tailored specifically for nursing students. Esteemed bodies such as the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and the National League for Nursing (NLN) extend their support through the bestowment of nursing scholarships. Parallelly, numerous other organizations also contribute to this array of scholarship opportunities. 

In essence, delving into the realm of available financial aid can substantially alleviate the fiscal challenges associated with transitioning from an MA to an RN path. By meticulously exploring the diverse options encompassing scholarships, grants, federal loans, and work-study programs, aspiring RNs can forge ahead in their educational journey fortified with financial stability. 

MA and RN Licensing and Certifications

When it comes to Medical Assistants (MAs), formal state certification might not be an obligatory requirement, as outlined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Nonetheless, employers often display a preference for MAs possessing a certification, such as the Certified Medical Assistant (CMA) designation offered by the American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA). To secure this certification, individuals must be at least 18 years old, successfully pass a comprehensive exam, and fulfill stipulated criteria related to their education and practical work background. 

In contrast, all Registered Nurses (RNs) must obtain state licensure as a mandatory step. It’s advisable to consult your state’s governing nursing board to gain a clear understanding of the prerequisites. This could include undergoing criminal background checks, among other conditions. The path to acquiring an RN license generally involves two primary stages: 

  • Completion of an accredited nursing education program. 
  • Achievement of a passing score in the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). 

Beyond the foundational licensing, Registered Nurses also have the option to pursue supplementary certifications. These specialized designations can be obtained through professional organizations and are tailored to specific domains of nursing, like gerontology or pediatrics. Additionally, RNs might be required to attain certifications in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), basic life support (BLS), and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), depending on their practice environment and responsibilities. 

  • *This is an offer for educational opportunities that may lead to employment and not an offer or guarantee of employment and that may help prepare students to meet the licensing or certification requirements of the field they choose to study. Students should check with the appropriate licensing or certifying body to make sure the program they apply to will help meet any licensing or certification requirements. Students should also consult with a representative from the school they select to learn more about career opportunities in that field. Program outcomes vary according to each institution’s specific program curriculum.

10 Reasons to Earn a Degree After the Military

10 Reasons to Earn a Degree After the Military

Why Military Veterans Should Consider Reasons to Earn a Degree After the Military

There are many reasons to earn a degree after the military. It may solidify skills and prep you for the civilian job market. No matter where you are in your service journey, it is a step to consider. And one you may be more prepared than you think. The military provides many soft skills that may set you up for success in a civilian role. Soft skills are qualities like being dependable and having a strong work ethic. Being able to resolve conflict and adapt are a few more that employers appreciate.  

Naturally, each area of service shapes different skill sets. But if you identify yours, it can make your education feel more purposeful.  

10 Reasons to Earn a Degree After the Military  

Here are ten reasons to earn a degree after the military.  

1. Pave the way to higher earnings

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, full-time workers aged 25 and over with a bachelor’s degree had median weekly earnings of $1,334 in 2021. Compared with workers who only had a high school diploma, that’s $809 more per week. 

2. More education might equal less unemployment

Having a college degree may help you land a job. The same BLS.gov report found that full-time workers aged 25 and over with an associate degree experienced an unemployment rate of 4.6%. The rate is lower for workers with a bachelor’s degree (3.5%). For workers with a high school diploma, the unemployment rate is higher (6.2%). 

3. Your military skills may count towards college credit

In the military, you honed key technical and communication skills that may help you in the civilian job market. Knowing this, many colleges offer credit for qualified military training. So, a degree may be more accessible than you think. To get the process started, you may want to order your Joint Service Transcript so that your college can review it.

4. Adapt your skills for a civilian job

Through military service, you may have many marketable skills. Like leadership and a solid handle on how to manage time, teams and projects. That said, the military has its own style. So, attending college may help you mold your talents for use in a specific career field.   

5. Education is good for the heart 

Another reason to earn a degree after the military can be found in federal statistics which shows that education may be heart healthy. Figures show that, on average, bachelors prepared 25 year old’s live about nine years longer that those who did not graduate from high school.  

6. Score promotion points  

Points toward promotion is one of the incentives the military offers to enlisted service members when they use education benefits. The number of points varies by branch. For instance, the Army may reward Soldiers with up to 100 points toward their promotions. The Marine Corps may grant up to 75 points toward promotions. And, the Navy may award points to Sailors who have earned their degrees. These points may help you to climb the ladder in the military or prompt you to pursue a civilian career. Either way, for most entry level jobs, you need a bachelors degree (BLS.gov).

7. Find a new direction 

You may be doing a job you love in the military and want to build a civilian career in the same line of work. Or, ready to find a new path that builds on your strengths. Military veterans tend to perform well in college and choose a wide range of majors.

8. College may support your transition 

Many military friendly colleges have resources to help veterans make the leap into civilian life. You may find enrollment counselors that work to help you navigate everything from benefits to program choice. There are also online programs designed to enable you to progress towards a degree at your own pace. And from wherever you are with a computer and internet.

9. Build new networks 

A college degree may help you expand professional and personal networks. Apart from course work, there may be other resources to help you with a job search. Many colleges have workshops and dedicated centers where you can learn to optimize your resume and profiles, prep for interviews and so on. 

10. Prep for in demand career paths 

Even people already in the workforce are upgrading their skills to prep for a brighter future. Over half of adults (54%) in the workforce feel they need to add more skills to stay current and competitive in the job market. Plus, for some of the fastest growing fields, you need a bachelors degree or higher.  

Degree and Career Paths for Military Veterans

One of the key steps to landing a job, is earning the degree that help prepare you for it. Here are a few degree and career paths for military veterans.

1

Bachelors in Computer Science / Information Science

Skills: Critical thinking, complex problem solving, judgement
Career Opportunities: Information Security Analyst, Computer and Info Systems Manager, Database Administrator, Software Developer

Information Security Analyst

As an information security analyst, your primary role is to protect networks and systems from hackers and potential breaches. With the increasing prevalence of cybercrime, this field is experiencing rapid growth, projected to see a 32% increase in jobs from 2022 to 2032. Info sec analysts earn a median annual salary of $112,000 on average though salaries may vary. To enter this field, a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information assurance, programming, or a related field is a common starting point. Advancement opportunities often require candidates to have an MBA. 

Computer and Info Systems Manager 

As a computer and IT manager, you work with a business to figure out its technology goals and needs, Then, help plan and direct things like installation and upgrades. As more firms expand into digital platforms, the field should see 15% more jobs by 2032. If this interests you, many people enter with a bachelors degree, but tend to need a grad degree for more complex roles. That said, the 2022 median annual salary in this field is $164,070. 

Database Administrator 

DBAs or database administrators use software to store, secure and organize data. Their day to day may include running tests and backing up data. Job prospects should be favorable (8% by 2032) depending on the service industry. It is brightest for DBAs in computer systems design due to the popularity of cloud computing. For entry level roles, DBAs typically need a bachelor’s degree and proficiency in SQL. But firms with really large databases may prefer candidates with a master’s degree. 

Software Developer

Software developers are the creative minds who design computer programs. As an app developer, you could design things like word processors, custom software, programs and games. And as a systems deloper, you might create the operating systems that run the apps and programs. In both cases, a bachelor’s degree and skills in the industry you want to work in tend to be vital. The industry expects an average of 26% growth to 2032. Salaries range depending on job title. For example, software developers report median annual salaries of $124,200. 

2

Bachelors in Business Administration

Skills: Time management, systems thinking, problem solving
Career Opportunities: Management Analyst, Logistician, Market Research Analyst 

Management Analyst

Many management analysts consult with businesses to help them become more efficient and productive. So, above all, their day tends to include lots of problem solving and finding ways to control costs. These skills are valuable in health care, IT, gov’t and beyond. As a result, demand should reach 10% by 2032, which is much faster than average. Also above average are median annual salaries which in May 2022 were $95,290. While a bachelor’s degree is the common entry point, many employers also look for candidates with an MBA. 

Logistician

As a logistician, you have to analyze and track a business’s supply chain. In fact, you may have to manage the entire life cycle of a project from design to transport. You could prepare for this path with a bachelor’s degree in business, systems engineering or supply chain management. The projected projection is to grow 18% by 2032. Salaries in this field range, but the median annual salary is $77,520 per year. 

Market Research Analyst

One way you could blend business and communication skills is as a market research analyst. Market research analysts study trends to see if a product or service will sell well. They also help companies understand their target markets, what clients want and the price they will pay for it. Since companies rely on this info to turn a profit, the industry forecasts 13% more growth to 2032 and pays an median annual salary of $68,230. If this interests you, it is likely you will need a bachelor’s degree and head for math. 

3

Bachelors in Nursing

Skills: Critical thinking, emotional stability, attention to detail
Career Opportunities: Registered Nurse, Nurse Manager, Health Educator

Registered Nurse

As a registered nurse, you play a vital role in patient care. Beyond doing a health intake, RNs administer medicines and treatments. RNs also teach patients how to manage their condition, perform diagnostic tests and consult. Depending on your interests, you might also hone specific patient care skills to work with a particular group. Critical care for example, or addiction. The demand for RNs should add 6% more jobs by 2032 in gov’ts, hospitals, rehab centers and beyond. In all these settings, the median annual salary is $81,220. 

Medical and Health Services Managers

With the shift of healthcare services to office settings, the demand for medical and health services managers is projected to increase by 28% from 2022 to 2032. These managers are responsible for overseeing departments, facilities, or clinical areas, requiring skills in budgeting, staffing, and organization. While a bachelor’s degree is typically required to enter the field, some positions may require a master’s degree. Salaries vary depending on education level, with the median annual wage for medical and health services managers averaging $104,830 in May 2022. 

Health Educator

If you prefer to teach people about healthy behaviors, a career as a health educator might interest you. Health educators collect data to figure out how to promote wellness to specific groups. This may mean informing people how to avoid diabetes or stroke. Or, advocating for better health resources and policies. The field expects 7% more jobs by 2032 as there’s a need to help people avoid costly diseases and procedures. Some people earn their degree in health education or health promotion. Though there are positions that entail a masters or doctorate. With the range in roles, the median annual wage was $59,990 in May 2022. 

4

Bachelors in Criminal Justice

Skills: Communication, leadership, good judgement
Career Opportunities: Police and Detectives, Emergency Management Director

Police and Detectives

The primary responsibility of police officers and detectives is to solve crimes. In this role, you collect various facts and evidence from crime scenes to piece together the puzzle. If you have a passion for problem-solving and ensuring public safety, the demand for investigators remains steady. The employment outlook for police and detectives is projected to grow by 3% percent from 2022 to 2032, which is slower than the average for all occupations. As of May 2022, the median annual salary for police and detectives was $69,160.

Emergency Management Directors

As an emergency management director, your composed demeanor is crucial during crises. In this role, you’ll be responsible for developing tactical plans to respond to various disasters and emergencies. Given its significance across sectors, the field is expected to grow by 3% from 2022 to 2032. Due to the complexity of the job, a bachelor’s degree and relevant experience are essential. Some individuals pursue a degree in criminal justice with a focus on EM, while others opt for alternative paths like public administration. Upon graduation, you could earn a median annual salary of $79,180, depending on the sector. 

5

Bachelors in Accounting / Finance

Skills: Attention to detail, math, analytical thinking
Career Opportunities: Accountants and Auditors, Cost Estimator, Financial Analyst

Accountants and Auditors

As an accountant or auditor, your expertise in math and detective work comes into play as you investigate financial crimes such as securities fraud, embezzlement, and contract disputes. This career path may also involve collaborating with law enforcement as an expert witness. If this piques your interest, obtaining a degree and working towards CPA status can be beneficial. The field is expected to experience a 4% growth by 2032. While salaries vary, accountants earned a median annual wage of $78,000 in May 2022. 

Cost Estimator

A cost estimator evaluates the time, resources, materials, and labor needed for a project. Often serving as project managers, they oversee the planning of entire jobs in various fields like construction or IT. While the demand for cost estimators is projected to decline by -3% from 2022 to 2032, the pay levels vary across different industries. On average, cost estimators earn a median annual salary of $71,200. 

Financial Analyst

A financial analyst is an expert who assists businesses in making investment decisions. They evaluate stocks, bonds, and provide recommendations to strengthen portfolios. Typically found in banks, pension funds, and securities firms, a degree in accounting or finance is essential for this profession. Additionally, certifications such as the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) can prove advantageous. With an expected 8% job growth by 2032, financial analysts earn a median annual salary of $96,220. 

What’s the Difference Between a PhD in Psychology and a PsyD?

PhD vs PsyD

What’s the Difference Between a PhD in Psychology and a PsyD? Let Us Help You Get Matched For FREE!

Doctoral Degrees in Psychology

A doctoral degree in psychology can open doors to a range of career paths that often require this level of qualification, especially in fields such as clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasts a 6% growth in demand for these roles from 2022 to 2032. When considering your options, it’s essential to understand the distinctions between two primary psychology doctorate programs: the PhD in psychology and the Doctor of Psychology or PsyD. Evaluating these choices with your aspirations and interests in mind will guide you toward the most suitable path for your future. 

What Is a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Psychology?

A PhD, or Doctor of Philosophy, in psychology is inherently a research-oriented degree, emphasizing a more scholarly approach rather than a hands-on engagement with psychology practices. 

Termed the “scientist-practitioner model,” this type of training focuses on inquiry, statistical analysis, testing, and data interpretation instead of clinical work. PhD programs in psychology are characterized by their comprehensive scope, covering a wide array of theories and research methodologies while allowing students to delve deeply into a chosen research area. 

While honing skills in experimental design, you’ll also explore various methods of data collection, analysis, and the art of presenting findings scientifically. The pinnacle of a PhD program is the dissertation, an original theory that you defend before peers and educators with substantial evidence. 

The expertise cultivated through a PhD often revolves around analytical prowess, which can be advantageous for careers like research, education, consultancy, and program evaluation. Given the breadth of psychological domains, it’s essential to pinpoint your area of interest as a prospective PhD student, ensuring alignment with faculty expertise and program offerings in fields such as PTSD, forensics, couples therapy, addiction, and beyond. 

PhD vs PsyD : Difference between psyd and phd

What Is a Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)?

A PsyD, known as a Doctor of Psychology, is inherently centered around the clinical practice of psychology. 

Referred to as the “practitioner-scholar model,” this educational approach is distinguished by its emphasis on the direct application of research findings to therapeutic interactions with clients. As a result, PsyD programs are predominantly pragmatic in nature, featuring fewer research or statistical courses and a greater focus on clinical subject matter. 

These areas delve into theories of human growth and behavior, along with techniques for assessment, diagnosis, counseling, and intervention with individuals and groups. The PsyD journey often involves specialization in a specific clinical domain, enabling you to concentrate on particular groups or issues such as troubled adolescents, families, couples, or mental health concerns. Practical experience is paramount, including immersive training within a chosen setting. 

Throughout the PsyD program, you’ll encounter assessments that validate the integration of acquired skills and knowledge. Beyond accumulating clinical hours, a thesis—distinct from a PhD dissertation—is required. This PsyD paper could manifest as a lengthy essay or project. Unlike the PhD track, the emphasis lies in applying existing knowledge rather than formulating novel theories. 

Regarding clinical hours, they typically comprise two components: an initial practicum phase followed by an internship during the final two semesters of the program. 

PsyD vs PhD in Psychology

Degree comparisonsPhD in PsychologyPsyD (Doctor of Psychology)
Who is it ideal for?Designed for those interested in clinical practice, research and academia 
Designed for those interested in clinical practice with clients  
What does it focus on?Focus on research 
Focus on clinical (hands on) 
What are the admission criteria?Typical Admission criteria/requirements: Bachelors (major in psychology preferred) and or masters (preferred), strong research interests, acceptable GPA (3.0 – 3.5) and standardized test scores like the GRE, references, goals statement and writing sample. Often, there is an interview too. 
Typical Admission criteria/requirements: 
Bachelors (major in psychology preferred) and or masters (major in the same field), CV, acceptable GPA (3.0 – 3.5) and standardized test scores like the GRE, references, goals statement, and aptitude to help others.  
Often, there is an interview too. 
What can of funding can you get?Funding: Many PhD programs offer funding as students may serve as Research Assistants or Teaching Assistants.
 
Funding: There may be fewer options from schools based on the premise that you earn your degree sooner and pursue a career.
What are the program lengths?Program length: 5-8 years 
Program length: 4–6 years
  
What do courses and training look like?Courses: Research, statistics, analysis and theory (practical psychology knowledge) along with a research or teaching practicum and final dissertation 
Courses: Direct application of psychology through courses in topics that relate to intervention and treatment methods that relate to working with clients and patients plus a one year internship 
What are your career path options?Career path options: Scientific researcher, educator, consultant, program director, licensed psychologist Career path options: Licensed clinical, counseling or school psychologist (with many focal areas such as family and couple therapy)  

Which degree is perfect for you?

Regardless of the degree path you choose whether it’s a PhD or a PsyD, both can lead to licensure and open doors to similar roles within clinical psychology. 

Consider your aspirations: Do you envision delving into research and academia, teaching psychology at an advanced level? Or do you picture yourself in a clinical setting, working closely with patients to help them achieve their goals? 

Opting for a PhD in psychology means immersing yourself in the scientific study of behavior. This involves elements like testing, theory development, and in-depth analysis. If your ambition is to influence the field as an educator, researcher, consultant, or scholar, a PhD might align well with your goals. 

On the flip side, a PsyD program focuses on the practical application of psychological science in real-world scenarios. It takes proven behavioral theories and employs them to aid individuals in overcoming challenges. If you see yourself in a counseling role, conducting one-on-one sessions or leading group therapy, a PsyD could be a suitable choice. Staying current with the latest techniques would remain essential, but your focus might lean more towards patient interaction than laboratory research. 

Admission Requirements for PhD vs PsyD Programs

Admission prerequisites for PhD and PsyD programs exhibit variations among institutions, while the application process typically adheres to a uniform structure of submission and interviews. 

Universities establish their distinct entry criteria, commonly emphasizing a minimum GPA and standardized test scores. Although these benchmarks are prevalent, there might be supplementary requisites. Both program types generally favor candidates with an undergraduate degree in psychology, and many also seek applicants with a master’s degree. PsyD programs often accept majors in related fields. 

An expected GPA range of 3.0 and higher is widespread. Recent GRE scores may be obligatory, accompanied by their own acceptable ranges. 

Admission committees meticulously assess personal statements and recommendation letters. These documents provide insights into your personality, work ethics, and alignment with the institution’s ethos. 

Furthermore, there are discernible variations in the evaluated criteria for each program. PhD programs conduct more extensive assessments, considering traits like determination to excel in a rigorous PhD curriculum. They also evaluate whether your research interests correspond with faculty expertise, as successful candidates frequently engage in collaborative research ventures. 

And, they look at whether your research interests align with theirs. This is to see if there’s a “fit,” as successful candidates work under faculty in their labs. 

Conversely, PsyD programs concentrate on evaluating your suitability for effectively working with individuals and families dealing with diverse challenges. 

What are your prospects for securing admission to a PhD or PsyD program? Intriguing data exists on this subject. According to the APA, both program types uphold higher admission standards compared to master’s in psychology programs. 

At the doctoral level, clinical psychology exhibits the highest count of programs, applications, and acceptances. However, the overall acceptance rate stands at 13%. Acceptance rates for doctoral programs vary between 7% and 14% across most subfields, with significantly higher rates for school psychology (31%) and other applied psychology (25%). While almost four out of five (78%) applications to other psychology subfield programs are accepted, the limited number of programs (5) hampers comprehensive analysis. 

Funding for PhD vs PsyD Programs

Another distinct contrast between PhD and PsyD programs lies in the potential funding options available to students. 

Numerous PhD psychology programs provide stipends and tuition waivers. In return, students often work as research or teaching assistants, contributing to faculty projects. With a substantial stipend, students might even secure a comprehensive financial package. 

PsyD students might also qualify for a stipend if the institution offers one. However, not all PsyD programs provide stipends, and tuition waivers are less common. The underlying assumption is that PsyD graduates enter the workforce sooner than PhD counterparts, leading to quicker career launches. 

In cases where financial aid remains a concern, avenues might exist to fund your dissertation or thesis. According to the APA, potential sources encompass educational institutions, foundations, APA divisions and grants, psychology associations, as well as state and federal agencies. 

Additionally, scholarships or fellowships could potentially reduce the overall cost of your degree. These awards might cover a portion or the entirety of your academic expenses, and unlike loans, they generally do not require repayment. Keep in mind, however, that certain conditions and terms might still apply. 

Program Length in a PhD vs PsyD Program

Both a PhD and PsyD entail a significant amount of time. Many PhD programs devote about three years to course work and lab rotations. Once you compete these components, there is an exam.  

Passing the exam allows you to move onto your own research project (dissertation). There may also be an option to take part in a teaching practicum, depending on the school.  

To complete all these steps, you might need an average of 5 to 7 years. At that, some schools are flexible, and give more time since the research process is extensive.  

In comparison, PsyD students may need from 4 to 6 years. The first three years tend to be for classes and exams. And the latter part, for practicum, internship and doctoral project. As the project is one of applied research, it may be less complex an effort than for the PhD.  

Courses for a PhD vs PsyD Program

While there are places of overlap, courses for a PhD and PsyD differ, as you might guess.  

A PsyD aims to provide academic, practicum, internship and research experience. While science based, it emphasizes therapy and counseling methods.  

This yields a study plan around quality clinical skills. Ones needed to assess, diagnose, and treat mental health problems and illnesses. You tend to also study ethical codes and how to set boundaries with patients. So, some classes cover group dynamics, cultural diversity and other professional issues. 

In some PsyD programs, you can choose a focal area as well. Forensics, health, mental illness, family, and couple are a few. Each one brings with it some electives, practicum and research. So aside from the core program, you are likely to develop expertise in one subject area.    

PsyD Sample Classes 

  • Interviewing assessment
  • Intelligence testing
  • Psychoanalytic theory
  • Human growth (child, adolescent, adult, older adult)
  • Consultation and supervision
  • Psychopharmacology
  • Human sexuality
  • Substance abuse
  • Clinical practicum
  • Statistics
  • Doctoral project courses 

Main goal: To learn how to provide psychological services
Central elements: Core classes, exam, electives, doctoral project courses, internship   
Credits: Varies, some programs cover 70 to 80 credits 

PhD programs include core courses, seminars, reading and research. Core courses frame theories like social learning, behaviorist, cognitive, gender, and more. You also tend to human growth, milestones and phases.    

Research methods are central too. Topics like statistics, experiment design, and data analysis. These take a good part of your study plan and may involve lab rotations.  

If you plan to teach, you might take classes that outline teaching skills. Things like how to communicate and manage a classroom. You tend to have a teaching practicum too. 

Most students also choose to earn a PhD in a specific area of psychology. It guides your dissertation work and includes electives in your chosen area. For example, let’s say you do a PhD in social psychology. It may discuss all the above and add topics related to memory, attention, schema theory and social influence. 

PhD in Psychology Sample Classes 

  • Psychology themes and theories
  • Human growth (child, adolescent, adult, older adult) 
  • Culture and psychology
  • Teaching of psychology
  • Consultation
  • Program assessment
  • Research foundations
  • Advanced qualitative reasoning
  • Research theory, design, methods
  • Advanced quantitative reasoning
  • Research or teaching practicum 

Main goal: To generate new knowledge through scientific inquiry
Central elements: Core classes, doctoral writing, research classes, dissertation support classes, teaching or research practicum 
Credits: Varies, some programs cover 60 to 70 credits.

APA Accreditation  

Beyond the above, APA accredited programs follow guidelines. APA accreditation promotes unified standards both for training and education.  

The APA commission accredits PhD and PsyD programs in a few areas: clinical psychology, counseling psychology, school psychology, and other related areas.  

APA standards also span a broad and general training in scientific psychology and core elements of practice. And aim to ready students for the practice of professional psychology. 

As a graduate of an APA accredited program, you may be prepared for licensure. For one, these programs cover material you need to master for the EPPP exam. The EPPP is the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. 

It is from the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). You need to pass this to be a licensed psychologist. Second, some states mandate you have a degree from an APA accredited program. Or prove their program is equal. In other words, if your goal is licensure, APA accreditation matters.     

Potential Career Path Options for a PhD vs PsyD Program

To call yourself a licensed psychologist, you first need to take and pass the EPPP exam, or Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology. It is available through the Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB). Each state may also mandate continued education to keep your license active.    

Some licensed psychologists go an extra step to board certify in a specialty area. This is through the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Either a PsyD or PhD may help ready you to take the EPPP exam. But each type of degree helps you hone certain skills that may be useful in different career paths. 

A PhD, for example, nurtures skills in analysis. So, it may be helpful for positions such as researcher, consultant, program director and or, educator. According to the O’NET, college psychology teachers earn median annual wages of $78,810. Demand is high too, with 5% to 8% more jobs forecast for 2022-2023. So, this may be one option.     

If you prefer to solve problems in the workplace, I / O psychology is another in demand sector. Industrial organizational psychologists rely on data and earn a median annual salary of $147,420 per year.  

On the other hand, a PsyD expands practical clinical skills. And these are crucial if you want to work with clients in an office or health care setting.   

According to the BLS.gov, psychologists earn a median annual wage of $92,740. Many work in private practice. And others may find jobs in government, hospitals, ambulatory care, and schools. Prospects are even better if you work with seniors and rehab psychology.  

Other Doctoral Degrees in Psychology

There are a few other doctoral degrees that may be useful if you want to pursue a career in psychology. One is the EdS, or Education Specialist, and another is a DBA, or Doctor of Business Administration (likely in organizational psychology).  

Education Specialist (EdS) 

An EdS is a post masters and pre doctoral degree. It generally takes about three years to complete after a masters degree. Most EdS programs are designed for professionals who would like to study beyond the master’s degree level but do not plan to pursue a doctoral degree like the PhD or PsyD. 

The coursework is at the advanced graduate level though. So many schools will transfer earned credits to a doctoral degree if you decide to pursue one later. 

Some students choose the EdS to improve their skills for advanced licensure in K – 12 related roles or to prep for academic and administrative leadership roles within higher education. 

In some states, graduates can pursue licensure with an EdS. In other states, however, you must have either a PhD or EdD (a doctoral level degree) to pursue licensure.  

Both school counseling and school psychology are practice areas in EdS programs. School psychology programs cover education and mental health subject areas such as behavioral and learning disorders, performance plans, and specific counseling tactics for students. 

If you want to prepare for a career as a school psychologist, this may be an option. According to the BLS, the demand for school psychologists is on the rise. Apart from 6% more jobs by 2022-2032, average annual salaries are about $92,740.  

Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) 

A DBA in I/O psychology studies human behavior in the workplace. It typically takes about three years to complete after a masters or MBA. Many DBA programs are for senior executives who make decisions and policies for their business. For instance, human resource directors and training managers.

These roles tend to rely on research and data to solve problems. In a work setting, these problems often affect productivity, profit, morale and performance. Some of the subject areas in a DBA program are leadership and coaching. You may also learn how to manage conflict and group dynamics.   

As a doctorate in business admin, it is likely to focus on managerial theory too. So, tactics, planning and policy processes tend to be key topics also. Some I/O psychologists launch a career with a masters in I/O psychology. And if a career as a licensed psychologist is your goal, a PhD may be more useful. 

At present, the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (SIOP) does not list the DBA as a path to licensure. You would need either a PhD or PsyD from an accredited school and then undergo a supervised practice and pass the EPPP exam.

But if a C suite job lines up with your personality, a DBA may provide other possible paths. Consulting is one area where demand is high. Business consultants use psychological research methods as well as strategic managerial skills. They can help a company become more efficient and control costs.

According to the BLS, jobs for consultants are on the rise by 10% through 2032. Other job titles are management analyst and leadership development manager. Beyond faster than average growth, consultants earn an average annual salary of $99,410 . And some earn more than $172,280.

Accelerated Nursing Programs – BSN, MSN, DNP

Accelerated Nursing Programs – BSN, MSN, DNP 

What is an Accelerated Nursing Program? 

An accelerated nursing program is meticulously crafted to have a shorter duration compared to a conventional nursing program. It caters to students who possess a Bachelor’s degree in a different field but aspire to make a transition into the nursing realm. Essentially, if your goal is to shift careers and embark on the path to becoming a registered nurse, this program could be an impeccable choice.

The realm of fast track nursing programs addresses the escalating demand for registered nurses within the workforce. To the point where hospitals may establish partnerships with educational institutions in a bid to bolster their ranks of fresh RN recruits. It’s no surprise that more than 282 accelerated BSN programs exist in the United States, with even more in the pipeline!

These programs delve into an extensive array of subjects in a considerably compact timeframe. Consider rapid-paced BSN degree programs, attainable in a mere 11 to 18 months. You will be building upon your prior collegiate knowledge, with a concentrated emphasis on nursing-centric coursework and practical clinical exposure. Moreover, your study journey is likely to be full-time, bereft of semester breaks. Thus, it serves as an excellent avenue for individuals without prior nursing backgrounds to swiftly acquire expertise in an entirely new field.

Accelerated Nursing Program Types

There are accelerated nursing programs to suit many levels and goals. Let’s learn about a few of them. Later, we’ll go into detail about some common program types. 

  • Accelerated BSN. Often referred to as ABSN, this program entails obtaining a Bachelor of Science in Nursing within a compressed time frame. It accommodates individuals with non-nursing Bachelor’s degrees. As a result, it encompasses essential nursing skills and theoretical knowledge. The advantageous aspect is that you won’t be required to redo your general education courses. Nonetheless, you might have to fulfill certain prerequisites if you missed any foundational science and health courses during your previous college tenure.
  • Direct Entry BSN to MSN. Tailored for individuals holding non-nursing Bachelor’s degrees, this program offers the unique opportunity to earn both a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) within a single integrated curriculum. This is particularly relevant for career paths like Nurse Practitioner and Nurse Midwife that necessitate a Master’s degree. Instead of pursuing a separate BSN program followed by distinct MSN studies, this route allows you to accomplish both endeavors concurrently.
  • Accelerated DNP. Crafted to expedite the attainment of a Doctor of Nursing Practice degree, this program capitalizes on online courses and continuous learning methodologies. While some programs might stipulate a prerequisite of earning an MSN before entry, certain options exist to merge your MSN studies with your pursuit of a DNP.
  • MSN to PhD. This program seamlessly integrates your Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) studies with the pursuit of a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Nursing. This strategic combination facilitates a streamlined transition from your MSN coursework to the advanced curriculum of your doctoral studies. It’s imperative to have obtained your BSN prior to enrolling in this program.

Accelerated BSN, MSN, and PHD in Nursing Programs  

Accelerated nursing programs are available across the spectrum of educational levels, encompassing Bachelor’s, Master’s, and doctoral tiers. As you navigate your academic journey, here’s an overview of what to anticipate at each stage:

Fast track BSN Programs

The accelerated Bachelor’s in Nursing (BSN) is crafted to be pursued as a subsequent degree endeavor. Consequently, it typically demands a reduced number of credits (typically ranging from 49 to 60) compared to a conventional Bachelor’s program. Given your completion of general education courses in your prior degree, you’ll seamlessly transition into the realm of nursing studies.

The curriculum will lay the groundwork for your transition into the nursing profession. It will encompass critical health sciences, such as pharmacology and pathophysiology, while also immersing you in the intricacies of patient care. This entails mastering nursing practices for diverse scenarios, spanning from surgical contexts to psychiatric situations. Furthermore, you’ll delve into nursing methodologies tailored for various demographics, including children, women, and the elderly.

The culmination of your accelerated BSN program lies in the clinical hours you’ll undertake. Within the clinical setting, you’ll have the opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom to authentic healthcare environments. Here, you’ll acquire practical skills like tending to wounds and conducting diagnostic tests.

It’s noteworthy that certain prerequisites might be stipulated for your fast-track BSN program. These prerequisites would involve courses that you should have already completed during your initial Bachelor’s program. Failure to have completed these prerequisites necessitates their fulfillment before commencing the accelerated nursing curriculum. These preparatory courses could encompass subjects such as biology, chemistry, statistics, and nutrition.

Admissions requirements for an accelerated BSN program may include: 

  • A Bachelor’s degree in a non nursing field, from a regionally accredited school
  • Minimum GPA (often 3.0 or higher on a 4.0 scale) 
  • Post secondary transcripts 
  • Personal statement 
  • Letters of recommendation 
  • Resume 

Common courses in an accelerated BSN program may include: 

  • Foundation of Nursing Practice. Just like it sounds, this course covers the basics of nursing. You’ll learn skills like patient assessment, analysis, and intervention. And, you’ll learn how to keep patients safe, clean, and comfortable.
  • Pharmacology. This course focuses on drug therapy. You’ll learn the chemistry behind medicine and how it treats diseases. You will learn how to calculate dosage. And, you’ll explore the toxic effects of misused drugs. 
  • Nursing Care of Children and Their Families. Your patients will have different needs throughout the lifespan. This course covers children, from infancy through adolescence. You’ll also examine the role of the family in children’s health. 
  • Community Health Nursing. This course introduces you to nursing for groups and communities. That include disease prevention in group settings. You’ll also look at environmental hazards that could impact large populations. And, you’ll study how to promote good health within communities. 
  • Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. Psychiatric patients need nurses with knowledge of mental health. This course covers how to deliver a treatment plan to those with mental health needs. You’ll learn about the social and cultural factors at play, and how to provide sensitive care.  

Accelerated MSN Programs

For those embarking on a career change, an expedited Master’s in Nursing program presents a promising route. This program is alternately referred to as a “direct entry” or “entry-level” MSN, as it is tailored for individuals holding non-nursing Bachelor’s degrees, akin to fast-track BSN programs. This trajectory becomes particularly pertinent if your ambitions involve a profession demanding a Master’s degree, such as becoming a Nurse Practitioner.

Since its target audience comprises non-nursing graduates, an accelerated MSN program typically integrates both Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and MSN coursework. The program’s structure might dictate an initial attainment of the BSN. This phase will cover the fundamental aspects of nursing, spanning from professionalism to pathophysiology. Subsequently, you will advance into more intricate subjects, culminating in the acquisition of your MSN.

Frequently, an MSN program grants you the liberty to select a concentration area. This empowers you to tailor your academic pursuits in alignment with a specific career path, be it Nurse Practitioner, Nurse Midwife, or even delving into nursing research. Notably, this program could also equip you with the competencies required to lead teams of nurses or spearhead community health initiatives.

Admissions requirements for an accelerated MSN program may include: 

  • A Bachelor’s degree in a non nursing field, from a regionally accredited school 
  • Minimum GPA (often 3.0 or higher on a 4.0 scale) 
  • Post secondary transcripts 
  • Letters of recommendation (academic and / or professional) 
  • Personal statement or essay 
  • Resume 
  • GRE scores (may be optional) 

Some common courses in an accelerated MSN program include:

  • Adult Health Nursing. A course like this may focus on both theory and clinical experience. You’ll learn important nursing concepts. And, you’ll practice them in person. That includes IV access and care, using a catheter, and keeping wound dressings sterile.
  • Maternal / Newborn Nursing. Learn the skills to care for mothers and babies. This course covers pregnancy and birth. You’ll learn about neonatal care, nutrition, and issues that occur during pregnancy. You will also learn how to care for infants after they are born.   
  • Nursing Leadership and Management. Running a nursing team or health organization calls for business knowledge. In this course, you’ll learn the theory and practice of leadership. That includes motivation, conflict management, and decision making. 
  • Assessment Across the Lifespan. This course covers how to assess and understand patients. You could look beyond symptoms, to gain the full picture of a patient. That includes cultural, social, and even spiritual factors. 
  • Becoming an APRN. Advanced practice registered nurses go beyond the basics. They specialize in areas of patient care, like midwifery or gerontology. This course covers what you could expect from this career path. It may be a good intro to further studies in a concentration area. 

Accelerated Doctorate in Nursing Programs 

Fast-track doctoral programs in nursing diverge slightly from accelerated BSN and MSN programs. This divergence arises because these programs typically require applicants to hold a Bachelor’s in Nursing as a prerequisite for entry. Despite this criterion, these programs can facilitate the expedited attainment of a PhD in Nursing or a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree.

Certain accelerated nursing doctoral programs offer the opportunity to concurrently earn a Master’s degree. In essence, they amalgamate MSN studies with doctoral-level coursework, thereby expediting your academic progression. Other programs necessitate initiating your journey with an MSN and gain acceleration through features like online courses or continuous curriculum, which may forgo traditional semester breaks. This approach contributes to minimizing the temporal investment required to achieve a PhD or DNP.

Irrespective of the pathway, doctoral-level nursing courses delve into advanced subjects, encompassing realms like nursing research, evidence-based practice, and public policy. Furthermore, you can opt to specialize or delve into an advanced practice area. This is particularly relevant for many Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) who pursue a DNP or PhD. Should you choose a clinical concentration, your focus would be directed towards mastering the nuances of practice within that specific domain. For instance, a pathway leading to becoming a Family Nurse Practitioner could encompass comprehensive training in primary care and advanced health assessment.

The crux of your time and dedication will likely be invested in a scholarly project or dissertation. In this endeavor, you will acquire the skills to employ research methodologies in resolving practice-oriented predicaments. This might even involve venturing into uncharted territories within the nursing field. Anticipate amalgamating this newfound knowledge in your culminating project.

Admissions requirements for an accelerated nursing doctorate may include: 

  • BSN and/or MSN from an accredited school
  • Postsecondary transcripts 
  • Resume 
  • Letters of recommendation 
  • Valid U.S. RN license 
  • APRN license (if it applies to the program)   
  • GRE scores
  • Goal statement or essay
  • Writing sample     

Some common courses in accelerated nursing doctoral programs are: 

  • Statistical Analysis for Evidence Based Practice. In this course, you’ll learn skills to analyze research. These include qualitative and quantitative reasoning. You’ll use these methods to draw insights that will inform your nursing practice. 
  • Leadership as an Advanced Practice Nurse. This course explores the leadership functions of APRNs. You’ll study skills for communicating with and guiding others. You will also learn how to improve patient outcomes, safety, and more. 
  • Healthcare Informatics. This field uses information engineering in health care. You’ll bring skills from information and computer science to the health field. This can help you understand and gain insights from health data. 
  • Epidemiology. This course covers population health and the spread of disease. You’ll study methods for intervention and control of disease. You will also learn how to conduct research in this field.  
  • Clinical Research Design. Research is a big part of doctoral nursing programs. That includes original research. This course teaches how to design a research study using human subjects. You’ll learn about ethics, controls, and how to make sure your findings are valid. 

Accelerated Nursing Online Programs 

An online accelerated nursing program has a convenient format that could save time. It covers the same coursework as an in person program. But, you don’t have to stick to a rigid course schedule. You could study any time of the day or night. 

This flexibility can be great, but also challenging. That’s because you’ll need to keep yourself on track and manage your time well. Sure, you’ll have access to supportive faculty and classmates. But, you may have to be more proactive about reaching out for help and mentorship. 

That said, if you plan to earn a fast track nursing degree, you’ve already earned at least a Bachelor’s degree. Hopefully, that means you’ve mastered time management. In fact, employers have reported that accelerated nursing program grads tend to be more mature. They’re older than traditional students. And, they usually have work experience in another field. All this could be helpful for online learners. 

Even if your program is mostly online, some parts will likely be in person. Many programs require labs and simulations. Some of these could be done virtually. But, many of these experiences call for in-person guidance. And, your clinical hours will likely be done at a hospital or health care facility near you.

In the end, it comes down to your preferences and learning style. Either program format could help you transition to a nursing career path. 

How long does an Accelerated Nursing Program Take? 

A typical accelerated BSN degree takes 11 to 18 months to earn. That includes any prerequisite courses you may need to take, depending on your educational background.  

While the shortest program may be 11 months or less, many take somewhere in the range of 14 or 15 months. These programs are designed to be pursued full time. That means you may not be able to keep working while you earn your degree. 

That said, some schools offer accelerated BSN programs that are also part time. These take a few years to earn but may still take less time than a traditional BSN program. 

Accreditation for Accelerated Nursing Programs 

Opting for an accredited fast-track nursing program carries significant weight. Accreditation serves as an assurance that your chosen program adheres to specific benchmarks of quality. The Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) is entrusted with accrediting programs based on their commitment to excellence and ongoing enhancement. The overarching objective is to ascertain that nursing programs effectively cater to both students and the broader public, while simultaneously equipping them for professional practice or advanced studies.

Parallel to this, it’s imperative to factor in the licensing requisites within your state. Across all states, prospective nurses are mandated to graduate from an approved nursing program. To gain clarity on which programs hold approval, consulting your state board of nursing is essential. It’s noteworthy that approval and accreditation are distinct concepts. Nonetheless, it’s worth noting that a substantial number of state-approved nursing programs align with CCNE accreditation standards.

In order to obtain a nursing license, successful completion of the NCLEX exam is imperative. The National Council Licensure Examination evaluates your grasp of fundamental nursing knowledge and the tenets of patient care. Your proficiency in addressing questions in these realms will be evaluated:

Safe and Effective Care Environment 

  • Management of Care 
  • Safety and Infection Control 

Health Promotion and Maintenance 
Psychosocial Integrity 
Physiological Integrity 

  • Basic Care and Comfort 
  • Pharmacological and Parenteral Therapies 
  • Reduction of Risk Potential 
  • Physiological Adaptation 

Completing an accredited program doesn’t ensure you’ll pass the NCLEX. But, it should cover the materials you’ll need to know.  

What is a BBA Degree?

What Is a BBA Degree?

Get Matched for FREE to a BBA Degree!

What Does BBA Stand For?

BBA stands for Bachelor of Business Administration. This degree offers a comprehensive understanding of business fundamentals, earning it the nickname “holistic management degree” due to its general nature.   

In BBA programs, the emphasis lies in cultivating communication skills and honing business decision-making abilities. Moreover, these programs provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to a business’s success. Interestingly, BBA degrees often focus on liberal arts subjects rather than intensive calculations. 

What Is the Difference Between BBA vs BSBA Degrees?  

Both the BBA and BSBA degrees share a solid foundation of business courses, covering topics like marketing, economics, operations, and business law. However, the key distinction lies in the extent of math and finance coursework. 

Typically, the BBA provides a well-rounded exploration of various facets of business. On the other hand, the BSBA leans towards a more math-oriented approach, immersing you in the realm of commerce. 

Most BSBA programs aim to cultivate an analytical mindset. You’ll delve into a company’s cash flow statement and budget, mastering the art of deciphering data and utilizing these insights to drive strategic decisions. 

Choosing between a BBA and BSBA may hinge on the specific skill sets you wish to develop, as the area of focus within your business administration degree can significantly shape your future career path. 

BBA Degree Coursework

In general, a BBA program encompasses a total of 120 credits. Around one third of these credits are dedicated to general education and liberal arts courses, which include subjects like public speaking, psychology, business writing, and English. 

The remaining portion of the curriculum constitutes the business core. In these classes, students gain a comprehensive understanding of how companies operate and develop an appreciation for applying these concepts in real-world business scenarios. 

This often means learning to manage people, finances, and risk for companies of all sizes. While no two programs are the same, some popular BBA classes might include these topics.  

  • Ethics and business law 
  • Management and leadership 
  • Intro to Marketing 
  • Micro and macro economics 
  • Business statistics 
  • Finance basics 

Along with your classes, you may have a capstone project or thesis. Most schools offer a menu of concentrations to help you tailor your studies too.  

According to the BLS, According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), employment in business and financial occupations is expected to grow at a rate faster than the average for all occupations from 2022 to 2032. Additionally, the average annual salaries in this field are expected to be $76,850, which was higher than the median annual wage for all occupations of $46,310. 

How Long Does it Take to Earn a BBA? 

Earning a BBA or BSBA degree typically takes four years of full-time study. However, if you have transfer credits, you may be able to expedite the process. Certain colleges also provide accelerated programs or offer a 4 + 1 option for those planning to pursue a master’s degree. In a 4 + 1 program, your bachelor’s and master’s classes can overlap, allowing you to complete both degrees in a shorter timeframe. 

BSBA Degree Coursework

A BSBA program consists of 120 credits, focusing on the scientific aspects of business. Compared to a BBA, the BSBA narrows its scope to delve deeper into specific topics. 

This specialization may involve additional courses in accounting, banking, and finance, as well as subjects like calculus and business analytics. Some schools may also include technology-focused courses in their curriculum. 

The emphasis on these classes is to equip you with the ability to convert business intelligence into practical strategies. Ultimately, you will apply and integrate these skills into a final management capstone project. 

While no two BSBA programs are the same, these classes are popular. 

  • Managerial accounting 
  • Applied statistics 
  • Financial accounting 
  • Business systems analysis 
  • Principles of finance 
  • Micro and macro economics 

What Can You Do with a BBA or BSBA Degree?

With a BBA degree, you can develop essential skills in sales, marketing, and administration. Throughout the program, you’ll learn to create business plans, maintain accurate financial records, handle personnel matters, and navigate legal issues. 

These abilities can be beneficial if you aspire to start your own business or pursue entry-level positions such as accountant, loan officer, sales manager, or roles in human resources. 

On the other hand, a BSBA degree program hones various foundational skills, including accounting, finance, economics, management, marketing, and international business. This broad knowledge base opens up a wide range of career possibilities in the business world. 

You may also gain other useful abilities like leadership and analysis. This may enable you to pursue entry level positions as:

 

Easiest Schools with Nursing Programs to Get Into

Easiest Schools with Nursing Programs to Get Into

Check out or list of easiest schools with nursing programs to get into. Then, get Matched for FREE to an online nursing program.

Why Are Many Schools with Nursing Programs Not Easy to Get Into?

Locating nursing programs that are relatively easy to gain admission to can be quite a challenge. Consequently, this could exacerbate the difficulty of securing a spot in a reputable nursing program.

Find an Online Degree Program

Several factors contribute to the growth of the nursing industry. These include an aging population, the increase in outpatient procedures, and the retirement of registered nurses (RNs). Consequently, it is projected that by 2032, the nation will require 6% more RNs and an even more substantial increase of 38% in advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs).

Yet in 2022-2023, the AACN says nursing schools rejected 91,938 qualified applicants. Both from Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) and nursing grad programs. The main reason is a lack of master’s and doctorate prepared faculty. But there’s also a shortage of clinical sites, classroom space, and budget.

These issues often force nursing schools to downsize their programs. And makes it more competitive to get into a nursing school. Even with a 3.5 GPA.

  • Apply eligible work experience and prior college credits toward up to 75% of your undergraduate degree.
  • Experience a Purdue Global undergraduate program for an introductory 3-week period. There’s no financial obligation beyond the application fee
  • Competency-based ExcelTrack™ programs may allow you to earn your degree faster and for less money

Purdue Global University

Easiest Schools with Nursing Programs

We compiled a list of 33 of the easiest schools with nursing programs to get into. It takes into account the most recent NCLEX pass rates and acceptance rates. You should note the acceptance rates published are at the school level not the nursing program level.

School# of Nursing Students% AdmittedUndergrad TuitionRN NCLEX 1st Time Pass RateBSN NCLEX 1st Time Pass Rate

Cox College

236100%$15,59993%90%

D’Youville University

259100%$33,560N/A85%

Herzing University – Madison

248100%$13,42075%53%

The University of Texas at El Paso

445100%$25,512N/A98%

Mississippi University for Women

47498%$8,092N/A100%

University of Southern Mississippi

22798%$11,618N/A95%

Brigham Young University – Idaho

24697%$4,656N/A93%

California University of Pennsylvania

27997%$15,726N/A95%

Western Kentucky University

31097%$27,00090%99%

Wichita State University

22096%$19,24084%N/A

Maryville University of Saint Louis

97595%$27,166N/AN/A

West Coast University – Orange County

66795%$22,685N/A91%

Wright State University Main Campus

26295%$20,606N/AN/A

University of Kentucky

31994%$33,406N/A99%

University of Toledo

27794%$21,737N/AN/A

Curry College

28493%$46,220N/A90%

MCPHS University

33893%$38,850N/A91%

North Dakota State University Main Campus

22593%$15,51188%89%

University of Saint Francis – Fort Wayne

26493%$35,42080%95%

Gwynedd Mercy University

38292%$38,310N/A88%

South Dakota State University

37892%$12,809N/A92%

Southwestern Oklahoma State University

22992%$8,325NA88%

University of Alabama at Birmingham

99692%$21,864N/A96%

University of Kansas

24892%$28,772N/AN/A

Barry University

21591%$33,450N/A87%

Marshall University

28391%$20,294N/AN/A

Nebraska Methodist College of Nursing & Allied Health

25091%$18,173N/A99%

University of Colorado Colorado Springs

23191%$20,492N/A95%

University of Northern Colorado

22591%$26,204N/A94%

Albany State University

32290%$16,65678%93%

Indiana State University

27790%$21,734N/AN/A

Jacksonville University

57390%$46,180N/A100%

Illinois State University

21589%$28,086N/A96%

Northern Kentucky University

22389%$21,480N/A93%

How Do I Increase My Chances of Getting into Nursing School?

It may not be easy, but there are ways to improve the chances of getting into nursing school. Here are a few tips and suggestions to try out.

Clarify Your Personal Statement

Many nursing schools ask for an admissions essay. Or, you have to submit to an interview. For these things, you need to be able to explain why you want to become a nurse. What your goals are and any stories you have.

For example, you volunteer at blood drives or at a local hospital. Enrollment counselors often look for a well rounded candidate. So, be clear, focused and make it personal as well as professional.

Review Admission Requirements

Each nursing school may set its own standards for admission. These may also vary by degree level and program. And, may be lax at some schools and more detailed at others.

It is common for schools to set an acceptable GPA range, ask for SAT or ACT scores, and prerequisite courses. You may also need recommendation letters, written by a teacher, mentor or employer. A CPR certificate and up to date flu shot too. Review school standards against your own achievements. Then try to apply those matches to boost the odds of getting an acceptance letter. For instance, if you have a 2.75 GPA, apply to schools with a 2.0 or 2.5 range to stand out.

Apply to Lesser Known Schools Too

Many lesser known schools have approval from their state board, and accreditation. But, being lesser known than popular ones, may get fewer applications.

If you meet the admissions requirements, they may be worth looking into. At the end of the day, getting accepted into a few schools means you can pick the perfect one for you.

Pursue a Nursing Degree Online

Many lesser known programs are available at online nursing schools. Often, these schools have state approval, national accreditation and high NCLEX pass rates too. Some online programs are available at traditional colleges. These may use a cohort model where you enter with the same group. Most also use video conferencing and a set schedule to foster interaction. But you won’t have to move which may make them an affordable option.

Other programs are from online schools with nursing programs. In these schools, classes are available on a learning management system (LMS). The LMS may feature discussion boards, Wiki, and other digital tools. You may also have the flexibility to set your own pace, study from wherever you have high speed internet and so on. As far as clinical and hands on experiences, each school handles them in their own way. So, it is important to speak with an administrator to get full details.

Are you open to some legwork? A self-starter? If so, many online programs have lax admissions requirements (E.g. GPA of 2.0). And again, applying to a broad pool of nursing schools may help you get into one.

Scout Locations and Cast a Wide Net

Your chances of getting into a nursing program may be higher in some states than in others. This may be because there are more nursing programs in the particular state. Or, a wider range of open nursing jobs.

The schools may also have an open admissions policy making them accessible. Applying to schools in these states may increase your odds of getting into nursing school. Assess the school as well as the potential to land a job after you graduate.

A few states with the highest number of registered nurse jobs are:

  • California
  • Texas
  • Florida
  • New York
  • Pennsylvania

Areas like New York, Florida, Michigan, Texas, Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania and North Carolina also report high concentrations of RN jobs.

Start Preparing Before You Apply

Some nursing schools look at the whole candidate. Beyond your grades, they may want to see what kind of person you are and what type of nurse you would be. Things like volunteer work can help a professional resume stand out. Especially if in a health care setting.

Check out your local hospital, nearby camp, or emergency dept. Doing so may provide valuable experience. And, might help you form a professional network as you start your career.

NCLEX Exam Pass Rate

The NCLEX exam is the National Council Licensure Examination from the NCSBN. Or, National Council of State Boards of Nursing. The exam is a standardized test every state board of nursing use. They do this to assess your skill level and determine whether to grant you a nursing license.

Depending on your goals, you may take one of two NCLEX exams. The NCLEX-RN if you aspire to become a registered nurse. Or, the NCLEX-PN if you are a graduate of a vocational or practical nursing program. You need to pass the NCLEX to earn licensure. It is a pass or fail outcome, so in an ideal scenario, you only take the test once.

If you fail, you have to wait 45 days before your next try and may take it up to 8 times in one year. This is expensive as you have to pay to take the test each time. You may have took many tests in nursing school, but the NCLEX exam is different. As a practical exam, it tests clinical reasoning skills. So, while ideal to pass it first time around, many do not. To give you an idea, the 2019 national pass rate for first time NCLEX-RN exam takers is 88.18%. And the national pass rate for repeat test takers is 72.80%.

Top 5 States with the Highest NCLEX Exam Pass Rates

Statistics from 2022 have yet to be compiled. But as of 2022, the 5 states with the best pass rates for BSN programs are:

StateRN to BSN Pass Rate %
Vermont100%
New Hampshire100%
Wyoming100%
South Carolina95.3%
South Dakota94.4%

10 Tips for Passing the NCLEX on Your First Try

If you prepare for the NCLEX, it is possible to nail it on your first try. In 2019, 84,298 BSN students took the NCLEX exam and of them, 91.22% passed it the first time.

Here are ten tips to help you succeed as an NCLEX test taker.

1. Take the Test Seriously

Earning straight A’s in nursing school does not mean you will pass the NCLEX exam. Some nurses say you should spend at least 1 to 2 months studying for it. So, no cramming the night before.

2. Know What the NCLEX Covers

To be effective when you study, it is wise to know exactly what the exam covers. There are four main categories in the NCLEX -RN exam. Based on client care needs, these are:

  • Safe and Effective Care Environment (infection control, case management etc.)
  • Psychosocial Integrity (grief, loss, family dynamics etc.)
  • Health Promotion and Maintenance (aging, high risk behaviors etc.)
  • Physiological Integrity (risk, hygiene, nursing actions etc.)

3. Understand the NCLEX Format

The NCLEX test does not use pen and paper. Rather, it uses a computer and keyboard. Pen and paper exams give every student the same test, not so with the NCLEX.  The NCLEX uses CAT format, or computerized adaptive testing. This means that no one exam is identical to another. In fact, the computer algorithm draws questions from a test bank. CAT targets items to each candidate’s ability. The computer stops giving questions when it is 95% sure that you are above or below the passing standard.

4. Figure Out Your Learning Style

For nursing school exams, maybe you reread, rewrote and recopied your class notes. You will want to do more than that for the NCLEX. The test is practical and tries to get you to think like a nurse. Not memorize statistics. Some people learn by listening, interacting or through visual means. So, depending on your style, you may want to use study groups, flash cards, watch videos or draw systems of the body on paper. These tools aim to connect you with the material. And, may engage you in a way that exercises your nurse decision skills.

5. Invest in Your Success

To bolster your test taking skills, you may want to invest in practice exam books. Or, enroll in a test prep class (E.g. Kaplan, UWorld etc.). Some of these services use 3D images, quizzes and questions that mimic the NCLEX format. They are guides, so look for one that fits your learning style.

6. Think Endurance, Not Speed

For the NCLEX-RN exam, you need to answer from 75 to 265 questions and have up to 6 hours to do so. And for the NCLEX-PN exam, there are from 85 to 205 questions. This makes the exam day more of a marathon than a sprint. Getting your head into the game may help you pace your energy. You can also plan to take the breaks offered during the test. There is usually a locker area at the test center so you can pack snacks, water and a sweater.

7. Practice Makes Perfect

A practice exam may grow your comfort level with test taking. But going through the motions of answering questions doesn’t always help you learn. When you get an answer wrong, look up the content topic to go over the right explanation. Also, make a note of any areas you get a few wrong answers in. Then focus your studies on these areas. If you stress out before, during and after exams, this is another reason to practice. Some people take at least one or two full online mock NCLEX exams to get into the rhythm.

8. Stick to Science

If you are a nursing aid or have experience working in a hospital setting, put this aside. It may cloud your test answering judgement. Even if what you did in this facility was safe and correct. For instance, you called the doctor right away or your intuition worked. The NCLEX is about proven, research and evidence-based approaches. So, stay in the moment with science and think of how to apply it to form your answer choice. Often, the correct answer is about putting the patient’s safety first. Are they breathing, choking, passed out? You should approach every question step by step and use deductive reasoning.

9. Prep for the Day of Ahead of Time

Think of exam day ahead of time. Try to get your beauty sleep the week before, eat and create a checklist. Things like planning your commute, putting gas in the car and setting a reliable alarm. There are rules about what ID each kind of test center accepts. You also want to ensure the ID you plan to take with you is valid (not expired).

10. Breathe and Believe

You graduated, got your approval to take the test and you scheduled the test at a perfect timeslot for you. It is OK to have a few gameday jitters. But now is also the time to exhale and believe you have what it takes to pass the NCLEX at first go.

Nursing Program Accreditation

At a basic level, accreditation is about quality control. So, one of the main indicators of a quality nursing program is accreditation status. Quality standards apply to both curriculum and teaching staff. They also help to set criteria for professionals seeking licensure or certification.

A main goal of accreditation in nursing is to set a common standard for all nursing programs through the US. This ensures nurses in each state perform duties with the same skills and know how. But there are a few levels and types of accreditation. You may find an accredited school. But this does not mean each nursing program within it is also accredited. Accreditation has a few levels and types. You may find an accredited school. But it does not mean each nursing program in it is also accredited.

What are the main accrediting bodies for nursing programs in the US?

National accreditation means the program adheres to common standards of quality. Ones set by a US Department of Education (USDE) approved agency. The two main accrediting bodies of nursing programs in the US are the CCNE and the ACEN. Both agencies continue to evolve their process and refine their standards. Many people wonder whether CCNE or ACEN accreditation is better. One is not better than the other. But the two agencies differ in scope and set their own standards and review process.

Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE)

  • Recognized by the USDE, the CCNE is the accrediting branch of the AACN. Or, American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Their goal is to improve the quality of nursing education and patient care. CCNE accredits nursing education programs of all levels in the United States. Bachelors, masters, doctoral, and certificate levels. It also includes programs offering online and residency programs.

Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN)

  • Both the USDE and Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) recognize the ACEN. The ACEN is older than the CCNE and went by another name. National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLN). The ACEN is an accrediting body for all types of nursing education. So, it accredits nursing education programs and schools, both postsecondary and higher degrees. ACEN also accredits programs which offer a certificate, diploma, or a professional degree. Like the DNP, masters, baccalaureate, associate, diploma, and practical nursing programs. Plus, those offered via online education and transition to practice (TTP) programs. There are other

Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education (ACME)

  • ACME accredits basic certificate, graduate nurse-midwifery, direct entry midwifery, and pre-certification nurse-midwifery education programs. It also accredits these programs offering online education.

Council on Accreditation of Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs (COA – NAEP)

  • COA accredits schools and programs of nurse anesthesia at the post-master`s certificate, master`s, or doctoral degree levels. This includes online education programs.

State Board of Nursing Approval

  • State board approval allows the nursing program to operate. So, an accredited school still needs their state board to approve each program. You need to attend a state approved program to sit for the NCLEX exam. Also, to get a nursing license and practice nursing. It is worth pointing out state approval and national accreditation are not the same. Nationally accredited schools also meet state board approval. Yet a school might be approved, but not accredited. The difference comes down to what accreditation offers to those who qualify. Like financial aid, using your credits, and vis a vis the job market.

5 Reasons Choosing an Accredited School with Nursing Programs Matters

  • It is important you make sure the nursing school you’ve been accepted to is accredited by proper agencies. Attending an accredited (vs non-accredited) nursing school matters for a few reasons.
  1. In an accredited school, you may apply for federal financial aid (E.g. Pell Grant)
  2. It may be easier to transfer schools. Accredited schools may refuse to accept credits from non-accredited programs
  3. You may want to earn a nursing graduate degree. Nursing grad schools want to see your college transcripts from an accredited school
  4. To build a career, become an RN and beyond. You can only take the NCLEX exam if you graduate from an accredited program
  5. For the job market, and to boost your chances of getting hired. Many employers prefer or only hire grads of accredited programs

What happens if you attend a non accredited school with nursing programs?

  • If you attend a non accredited program, it does not always mean the level of education is not subpar. You may still sit for the NCLEX exam and earn a license if your program has state approval.
  • In this case, you might check out the nursing school’s pass rate for the NCLEX exam. This may give you the feedback you need to make a decision, as some schools have higher pass rates than others. You also want to weigh the possible benefits of choosing a CCNE or ACEN accredited program. Then make the choice while considering your financial situation, study and career goals.

The Healthcare Administration Job Outlook

Healthcare Administration Job Outlook

Why Is the Healthcare Industry a Growing Field?

So what makes the Healthcare Administration job outlook so good? According to the BLS:

Increased demand for healthcare services from an aging population and people with chronic conditions will drive much of the expected employment growth.

Bureau of Labor Statistics

The demographic aging trend is primarily driven by the ‘Baby Boomer’ generation. According to the US Census, by 2032, every Baby Boomer will have reached the age of 65 or older. Consequently, at this juncture, over 16.8% of the entire U.S. population will belong to the 65 and older age group. The projection for 2056 suggests that the number of individuals aged 65 and above will surpass the population under 18 years of age. This demographic shift will exert a profound impact on the healthcare industry.

In fact of the 30 fastest growing occupations, 19 are in healthcare and related jobs. Between 2022 and 2032 the healthcare industry growth is projected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations creating 1.8 million new jobs. Among those jobs include:

Healthcare Administration Job Growth

When you think of the healthcare industry, you may think of doctors, nurses and other specialists, but the reality is that behind every great hospital is a team of healthcare administrators who help ensure that patients receive the best care possible.

As already noted, the Healthcare Administration Job Outlook is estimated to grow 28% from 2022 to 2032. Compared to the average growth rate, this is much faster than average. It translates to over 509,500 new jobs in that 10 year span.

It is the job of a Healthcare Administrator to make sure hospitals and other medical facilities run efficiently and effectively. They hire staff, prepare budgets and keep records of the hospitals services. As such, an ideal healthcare administrator has a strong background in both leadership and healthcare.

According to the BLS, Medical and health services managers typically need at least a bachelor’s degree to enter the occupation. However, master’s degrees are common and sometimes preferred by employers. With a 2023 median annual pay of $110,680 , now may be an excellent time to enter the healthcare work force.

Healthcare Administration Job Outlook

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Cyber Security in Today’s World

Interview with Ron Woerner: What Is Cyber Security in Today’s World

Ron Woerner stands as a seasoned IT veteran and a luminary in the field of cyber security, offering a wealth of knowledge from which one can glean valuable insights. His current role as the Director of Cyber Security Studies and an assistant professor at Bellevue University underscores his expertise in this domain.

His journey into the realm of IT and cyber security was ignited by an early fascination with computers and an innate curiosity about unraveling the inner workings of technology. This initial spark paved the way for his illustrious career as both a distinguished cyber security expert and an educator in the realm of IT.

Woerner commenced his academic journey by achieving a Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science, a commendable feat he accomplished at Michigan State University’s esteemed College of Engineering. His thirst for knowledge then led him to pursue a Master of Science degree in Information Resources Management, an achievement he attained at Syracuse University’s renowned School of Information Studies & Technology. To further fortify his expertise, Woerner has also earned various certifications, including the esteemed Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) and the highly regarded Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH).

As his reservoir of experience and capabilities expanded, Woerner has earned recognition as an authoritative figure in the realm of cyber security. He has shared his profound insights by contributing articles to industry publications, delving into pressing topics such as “4 Challenges to Address Corporate Cyber War” and “Educating Employees to Build Better Cyber Security.” Moreover, Woerner frequently graces conferences on cyber security and risk management as a distinguished speaker. Notable presentations in his repertoire include a captivating “Human Hacking” discourse at the US Cyber Crime Conference and an illuminating “Security in the New World” presentation at the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA) conference.

So what is it like to work in cyber security in today’s ever changing technical world? We are pleased to share Ron’s thoughts on that topic.

Please give a general definition of cyber security for someone interested in Information Technology but may not be familiar with the field.

The practice of cyber security is preventing, detecting, and responding to threats to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information systems and data.

Tell us more about your background and education. What brought you to work in IT and cyber security? 

I’ve always been interested in computers. I started using them in middle school in the early 1980’s and bought my own computer in 1982. It stems from always being curious on how things work. I studied computer science in college with a full-ride AFROTC scholarship to Michigan State University

After college, I worked for a year at AT&T Bell Labs in New Jersey in their archives researching the history, patents, and technologies. Once active-duty, I was an Air Force Intelligence Officer. That taught me many of the fundamental concepts of cyber security. I gravitated toward that topic as a Master’s degree student in the mid-1990’s, since it merged my computer science and intelligence backgrounds. I started working cyber security full-time in 2000 when I created a security program for a major billing company.  

Your professional IT work experience has been in many varying industries, from TD Ameritrade Bank to Nebraska Department of Roads to a food packaging company. Can you tell us a little about how cyber security varies from industry to industry?

The basic cyber security concepts and philosophies don’t change from industry to industry. What’s different are the compliance requirements and the organization’s risk management approach. TD Ameritrade is both a publically-traded company as well as an online brokerage. They have many more regulatory requirements than organizations not in that industry. Regulatory and legal requirements often make a security professional’s job easier, since it sets the goals for a security program. For other organizations I worked for, I had to sell the reasons for security technologies, policies, and procedures to ensure they fit the organization’s business model.

The other difference is how the organization manages risk. Financial organizations and publically-traded companies are much more mature in their understanding and handing of risks. Government and private organizations have a different risk tolerance and therefore the security program must be able to work within their risk framework. 

Cyber security is really a component of risk management and a function of the organization’s business. Cyber security professionals need to use sound risk management processes to ensure IT and cyber security risks are identified, assessed, and appropriately managed based on the business model.  

Can you talk about your dual role as an educator at Bellevue University and as the university’s Cyber Security expert?

The Bellevue University Cyber Security programs are designed to meet the high demand for cyber security professionals in both the public and private sectors. Combining theory with active learning, the program provides a framework for protecting an organization’s information and technology assets. The program is designed for professionals who want to build and expand their knowledge of protection and risk management techniques in the realm of cyber technologies. The program focuses on network and software security, risk management, protection mechanisms, business continuity planning, disaster recovery, and governance of information systems.

As the program director, I need to convey to my student and colleagues the skills, abilities, knowledge, and behavior required of security professionals. I am often asked by people both internally and externally for my expert opinion on a particular security issue, breach, or vulnerability. This requires continual study and research to be able to answer questions accurately and intelligently along with keeping my technical skills up to date.

As an Cyber Security professor, what concepts are you teaching students that are new for even you, a veteran of the industry?

The more I learn, the more I realize just how much more I have to learn. This is true in almost any field, not just IT. A good security professional needs to be well-versed in a multitude of subjects including economics, business management, psychology/human factors, legal studies and project management along with technology. 

Within technology, the newest area is mobile and cloud computing. Many organizations are moving to cloud technologies and using mobile devices like smartphones and tablets. This requires a slightly different mindset than traditional technologies. So, I’m continually learning the technologies in use such as virtualization, mobile app development, and big data.

Bellevue University is partners with numerous large companies like IBM, EMC, and Cisco. I’m taking advantage of the great training that comes with those partnerships.

It sometimes boggles my mind how much more there is to learn.  A philosophy I live by is to always be learning.  

How has cyber security changed since you entered it? Where do you see it going in upcoming years?

We will continue to see anytime/anywhere computing grow. Mobile and cloud computing enable this. The Internet of Things (IoT) is also a great change where more devices are made network-accessible. This means we’ll need to identify the threat, vulnerabilities, and risks associated with those technologies and apply security accordingly.

We are slowly migrating away from passwords. They are a very poor security control, yet they are very simple and cheap to operate. We will continue to see a growth in two-factor or multi-factor authentication, which requires users to use something they know (like a password) along with something they have (like a cell phone) or something they are (like a fingerprint). It’s much more common-place and user-friendly today, which is great because of the additional layer of security it provides.

Many companies from varying industries have been featured in the news recently for having their company and consumer information stolen by hackers. How does the field of cyber security contribute to preventing these kinds of hacker attacks and security breaches?

The recent breaches are causing many (if not most) organizations to re-prioritize cyber security. They don’t want to be the next headline, so they are hiring cyber security professionals to improve their technologies, policies, and procedures to reduce their risks. Cyber Security professionals understand threat vectors and the threat landscape to better anticipate potential security problems and hopefully stop them before they occur (aka prevention). They also understand how to detect issues to reduce the impact or probability of damage occurring. Lastly, they can help the organization respond appropriately when there is a breach.

There is no silver bullet to security. It takes dedicated security personnel along with universal participation of all employees to keep risks at a manageable level.

In your opinion, is it an ideal time to go into IT or to become an IT specialist? If so, why?

IT continues to be one of the hottest career fields. Computers are now ubiquitous and we need people to program, maintain, manage, and secure them. There are way more jobs than there are workers. 

What qualities or skills do you think are necessary for pursuing a career in IT and cyber security?

We need students who know more than just how to point and click, but understand the underlying technologies. They need to be consistently curious about the technology with a passion to learn the many different facets of the career field. To be successful cyber security also takes maturity. Things rarely go as planned. The professional needs to be able to handle adversity and implement contingency plans to meet organizational goals.

Other skills needed for not only IT / Cyber security, but all career fields are the ability to (1) communicate and (2) work with people. Being a successful IT or cyber security professional means more than just the technology, but the ability to interact with the people who use that technology.

What advice do you have for students pursuing a degree in IT or cyber security? How can students prepare themselves for the challenges?

A-B-C: Always Be Curious. There’s so much to learn (see my quote above) that you can’t get it all in the classroom. You need to do your homework even when you’re out of school to stay up to date. The real tests aren’t in the classroom, but in the workforce. 

Ask questions. If there’s something you don’t understand, it’s your job to ask intelligent questions to learn. 

CYA: Check Your Assumptions. Don’t assume that things are as they appear. Also, don’t assume that people understand what you’re talking about.

What do you find is the most exciting thing about the work you do?

The students. I love interacting and learning with them.


The experts interviewed for this article may be compensated to provide opinions on products, services, websites and various other topics. Even though the expert may receive compensation for this interview, the views, opinions, and positions expressed by the expert are his or hers alone, are not endorsed by, and do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions, and positions of EducationDynamics, LLC. EducationDynamics, LLC make no representations as to the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, suitability, or validity of any information in this article and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in or resulting from this information or any losses or damages arising from its display or use.

Cyber Security Issues

Interview with Michael Meikle: Challenges of Working in Cyber Security

Michael Meikle has witnessed the profound transformations within the Information Technology (IT) sector during his extensive two-decade tenure. The landscape that initially revolved around combating viruses and fortifying passwords in the 1990s has since undergone a substantial shift towards safeguarding data in our wireless, mobile-device-dominated world. Holding the pivotal roles of Chief Operating Officer and partner at the cybersecurity consultancy firm secure HIM, Meikle enjoys an unobstructed view of the ever-shifting terrain of data protection and risk evaluation within the IT domain.

Michael Meikle pursued coursework at Virginia Commonwealth University before embarking on a journey with a startup, where he gained invaluable hands-on experience. He furthered his education by earning a Master’s certificate in International Business Management and subsequently pursued multiple certifications, including the coveted Project Management Professional (PMP) and the esteemed Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).

Thanks to his profound expertise in the field, Meikle has been called upon to share his insights in articles addressing topics ranging from security breaches to effective business strategies. His contributions have graced esteemed publications such as the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, and PC World Magazine. Additionally, Meikle is a sought-after national speaker on technology and cybersecurity, regularly delivering talks at diverse industry events, including those hosted by the Medical Society of Northern Virginia (MSNVA), the Intel/McAfee FOCUS Conference, and Secure360.

Meikle emphasizes that many of his early positions played an instrumental role in shaping his current career trajectory. He points to pivotal roles such as a system and network administrator at an engineering startup, a project manager within the US Department of Health, and a security architect at Capitol One as vital stepping stones in his professional journey.

A significant milestone in his career was achieved when he received the prestigious Governor’s Technology Award from the Virginia Department of Social Services. This recognition was bestowed upon him for his exceptional contribution to the implementation of the Division of Licensing Programs Help and Information Network (DOLPHIN) System. Notably, this marked his inaugural software product implementation intended for statewide use, marking a momentous achievement in his professional portfolio.

Our interview with Michael Meikle explores the challenges currently facing the field of cyber security and the importance of continuing education in order to stay current and informed in the IT industry.

Tell us more about your background and education. What led you to work in IT and cyber security?

I have always had an affinity for computers and technology, so when I joined an engineering startup in college, I naturally fell into a system/network admin role. From there, I leveraged my experience and gradually shifted my career toward software development project management. After completing some large enterprise projects, I saw that information security was becoming more crucial and so I sought out more opportunities that would take my career toward the cyber security discipline.

Please describe cyber security and what your company does for someone who may not be familiar with the field.

To boil it down to its most basic essence, cyber security is the protection of data. All the processes, technologies, and people involved are all concerned with confidentiality, integrity and availability of that data.

Our company, secureHIM, is a security consulting and education company. We provide cyber security training for clients on topics such as data privacy and how to minimize the risk of data breaches. To facilitate these services, secureHIM has partnered with the Information Institute and its founder Dr. Gurpreet Dhillion. This partnership provides an accredited information and security framework for these programs.

Our consulting programs include security program evaluation, HIPAA & HITECH security assessments, strategic social media programs, and IT security planning services.

What is the most exciting thing about the work you do? Or the most rewarding?

Developing and delivering security training programs for companies are two areas that are the most exciting for me. I really enjoy interacting with folks and providing some great material that can be interesting, helpful, and contribute a great deal to the security of their company.

The other area that is most exciting for me is incident response. While stressful, there is a thrill of tracking down the origins of a phishing attempt or successful malware infection and then crafting the appropriate solution to protect against such an incursion in the future.

Can you tell us about your different roles in the IT industry (security consultant, risk consultant, author, trainer, voice in social media)?

I’ve held quite a few different roles in the IT & Security Industry. I’ll list a few of these below:

Security Consultant – I have provided security consulting services for around 15 years across multiple industries (Financial, Healthcare, Government, etc.). Projects I have led include Data Loss Prevention (DLP), endpoint encryption, intrusion detection/prevention, risk assessments, and data breach response.

Risk Consultant – As part of my security consulting practice, I have provided a wide assortment of risk consulting services, primarily in risk assessments. These assessments include HIPAA, HITECH, application security, and enterprise security environment.

Author – I have a significant body of published work across various publications, including a recent article about the Affordable Care Act in Social Work Today.

Trainer – I am an eLearning expert with dozens of online courses/webinars in my portfolio. I have provided these services for ExecSense/Financial Times, AtTask, Medical Practice Trends, and in person at various enterprises.

Social Media – I am an active participant in social media and I also provide security services for enterprise social media programs. I have spoken at national conferences on the topic of social media and I have designed several social media campaigns for regional companies.

How has your entrepreneurial spirit been a benefit to you in the cyber security field?

The drive to take a concept and create a viable business around it is very beneficial in several ways. It forces you to keep on top of your industry. You have to continuously educate yourself to ensure you have not missed a crucial opportunity or made potentially damaging missteps. 

It also provides a healthy reality check regarding business realities and forces a person who is oriented toward technology to manage the day to day operations of a business. This is invaluable experience and a definite step outside of the comfort zone of a typical technologist.

What are some of the key points you emphasize when training a company on risk, compliance, and security? What are some of the challenges of the profession?

Key points on Risk:

  1. Effective enterprise risk management requires a certain level of corporate maturity. This entails a managed and supported governance program.
  2. The concept of risk management itself must be driven from the executive suite with full support of those executives.
  3. With a new risk program, start small. Track no more than 10 critical business processes (KPI). Attach a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) to each.
  4. Risks must have executive oversight and business ownership.
  5. There is no technological silver bullet for managing risk.

Key points on Compliance:

  1. An effective compliance program is a component of a robust Governance, Risk, and Compliance initiative. This relies on a level of corporate maturity and support from the executive suite.
  2. The regulatory burden on multiple industries is continuously increasing. An enterprise needs to be educated on its local, state, and federal regulatory burden to ensure its program is covering its exposure.
  3. Beware of compliance by “checklist.” A checkbox compliance program may be tempting but many industry regulatory frameworks are incomplete or vague, which could lead to missing key risks. PCI compliance can be a good example of compliance by “checklist.”

Key points on Security:

  1. Security must become more of a priority at the executive level. Even with the latest breaches, corporate leadership mostly considers cyber security as a necessary evil with appropriate funding and visibility to match.
  2. The most unsophisticated security solutions still provide the most bang for the buck. These include patching your servers and endpoints, training your users on security risks, standard, updated antivirus/antimalware protection on servers and endpoints.
  3. Consider that nearly all of the recent major breaches have begun with a phishing campaign that lead to accounts becoming compromised and eventually stolen data.
  4. Monitor the tools you do have in place. All of the security solutions in the world will not protect you if they are not managed and monitored. Trained staff interpreting the data that is received by these solutions is very critical.

Challenges of the Security Profession:

  1. Staying current on the latest technologies, threats, and regulations is quite difficult. It requires continuous education.
  2. Communicating the need for training to leadership. Training in the enterprise today is not a priority for most companies. I have consulted for quite a few who do not invest at all in their employee’s ongoing education.
  3. Communicating the importance of security to leadership. It is an unfortunate reality that the security team of most companies becomes involved in a project near its completion when a security issue occurs. Proactive information security involvement in the enterprise is still in its infancy.

Companies from varying industries are desperately trying to safeguard their information from being hacked. What are some principle practices that you emphasize to companies trying to maintain security?

When considering your security program, remember it is about protecting the enterprise data. Data is the new currency and is increasingly important to the enterprise. In some industries, the protection of data has added federal mandates, such as healthcare Protected Health Information (PHI).

When protecting your data, review the Data CIA model. This stands for Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability.  Is you data confidential to unauthorized users? Do you know who has accessed, changed, or copied your data (integrity)? Can your data be accessed by authorized users when appropriate (availability)?

How has the cyber security field changed since you entered it?

The security field has changed tremendously since I first entered it in the 1990s. At that time, decent virus scanning tools, patching endpoints/servers when necessary, and a firewall were considered a viable security program. Security was usually an activity underneath the IT department that was managed by system administrator on an “as needed” basis.

Fast forward to today and the pace of security has become frenetic. New threats arise constantly and staying ahead of the curve is nearly impossible. In many cases, cyber security is still a subcomponent of information technology, but that is changing quickly. The basics of security still apply. Patching, monitoring, endpoint and server protection, employee training etc. are very critical.

The biggest change has been the arrival of consumer technologies into the enterprise (Consumerization). Gone are the days of corporate Blackberries, laptops, and desktops being the only devices an employee uses to access corporate information. Now a plethora of iDevices, Androids, and other mobile devices have knocked down the enterprise technology barriers. Managing how data is accessed, stored, and transmitted on these devices is one of the largest security challenges for security departments today.

Security has gone from the moat, drawbridge, and castle model to building a multiple secure perimeters around crucial pieces of corporate data. 

Do you think it’s an ideal time to go into IT or to become an IT specialist, and if so, why?

I believe it is a viable career choice with some caveats. You must realize that IT has been the target of downsizing, right-sizing, outsourcing, whatever euphemism you want to call it for over twenty years. You must be very flexible in your IT career and constantly aware of what trends are impacting the profession. Information security is relatively hot at the moment, but that could change quickly. Be prepared to shift your direction in your career and always have a few other IT skills you can fall back on.

Which skills do you think are necessary for pursuing a career in IT and cyber security?

General skills that may serve you well in IT and security:

  1. The ability to learn quickly
  2. Ability to troubleshoot problems while drawing on multiple sources of information
  3. Ability to embrace change
  4. The ability to communicate technical concepts to business users so they can make the appropriate decisions
  5. A love of technology

Valuable technical skills would be:

  1. Operating Systems
  2. Networking
  3. Servers
  4. Storage
  5. Virtual Machines
  6. Software Architecture

What advice do you have for students pursuing a degree in IT or cyber security? How can students prepare themselves for the challenges?

To prepare for the pursuit of an IT or cyber security degree, I would earn an industry certification or two. Take a look at the various CompTIA certifications and see what fits your interest. They may be valuable for your resume but there is no replacement for experience. Experience in the industry will give you the best feel for what to expect in a degree program. Internships may be abundant for IT and security, so seek them out at your university. 


The experts interviewed for this article may be compensated to provide opinions on products, services, websites and various other topics. Even though the expert may receive compensation for this interview, the views, opinions, and positions expressed by the expert are his or hers alone, are not endorsed by, and do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions, and positions of EducationDynamics, LLC. EducationDynamics, LLC make no representations as to the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, suitability, or validity of any information in this article and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in or resulting from this information or any losses or damages arising from its display or use.

Cyber Security Career

Interview with Doug Landoll: Navigating A Cyber Security Career

Amidst the era of digitization, where reports of cyber security breaches make frequent headlines, Doug Landoll has consistently maintained a proactive stance. Functioning as an authority in security risk evaluation and serving as the Chief Executive Officer of a firm specializing in information security, Landoll boasts a wealth of years spent acclimatizing to the dynamic shifts within the realm of IT. This encompasses the diverse array of perils that loom over digital data, spanning the domains of public and private information alike.

Cyber Security Career Doug Landoll

Fueled by a passion for engaging with computers, Landoll achieved his Bachelor of Science degree in computer science from James Madison University. Subsequently, he pursued his executive Masters of Business Administration (MBA) from the esteemed Red McCombs School of Business at the University of Texas in Austin. Alongside his academic accomplishments, Landoll obtained certification as a CISSP (Certified Information Security Professional), a premier credential within the information security arena.

Over the passage of time, Doug Landoll’s professional journey encompassed diverse roles within multiple companies. These ranged from serving as a Trusted Product Evaluator at the National Security Agency, to assuming the mantle of Practice Director of Risk & Compliance Management at an enterprise specializing in information security, and culminated in the establishment of Lantego—a firm comprising adept professionals in information security compliance—with Landoll at its helm as CEO. He crafted a comprehensive handbook for security risk assessment, a vital resource embraced by IT practitioners and learners alike. Owing to his extensive expertise, he has earned prominence in numerous publications addressing information security subjects, and he frequently delivers talks at prominent IT conferences such as the recent Information Systems Audit and Control Association conference.

Read our full interview with Doug Landoll to find out how he got into IT and the field of cyber security and how the navigates the ever-developing challenges of the digital age.

Tell us more about your background and education. What led you to work in IT and cyber security? 

I always loved working with computers and enjoyed the mathematics background and analytical aspect of it all, but I never really enjoyed programming. Back when I went to school, programming seemed to be the only option in the field. Somehow I just knew I would find something in this field so I kept on with my education. A BS in Computer Science allowed me to pursue work in this field and discover that there were a wide variety of positions. I was introduced to the field of computer security (which I really did not know existed) when the intelligence community recruited me in my senior year of college. Once I caught that bug, I have never looked back. I love this field of study.

Did you hold any past positions that have played a significant role in where you are today?

I held several positions that influenced where I am today. I led several technical teams while serving in the intelligence community, analyzing security vulnerabilities of commercial systems. I led consulting practices within large organizations and grew them with additional services and members. But the most rewarding and influential positions I have held is founding and running my own company. I have done this four times now: founding, growing, and eventually selling information security consulting practices. I now enjoy working for myself and concentrating on information security risk assessments, policy development, and the education of others pursuing a career in information security.

Please describe cyber security and what your company, Lantego, does for someone who’s unfamiliar with the field.

Cyber security can be thought in two distinct missions: Builders and Busters. Builders design, assemble, configure, and operate secure networks and applications. Their job is to ensure that they create the most resilient and secure systems to protect an organization’s assets with the resources they have. Busters review, assess, and test these systems looking for any design, implementation, or operational flaws or vulnerabilities in the system. Their job is to find these vulnerabilities, prioritize them, and suggest how to fix them in the most efficient and effective way possible.

Lantego specializes in assessments. Gap assessments are a review of the current security controls with respect to an industry standard such as HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) security and privacy or the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS). Security risk assessments go one step farther and assess the likelihood that vulnerability could be exploited and the impact it would have on the organization. This allows us to prioritize our findings. Lantego also develops information security policies and processes for state agencies and commercial organizations when they are lacking appropriate administrative controls. Many organizations seek independent consultants for assessments and policy development because of the need for an independent review and the lack of specialized resources to create policy.

What keeps you excited and interested in the work you do?

I keep excited about my work because there is always something new to work on. Last year, I rewrote the information security policy set for the State of Arizona and worked directly with the State CIO (chief information officer) and State CISO (Chief Information Security Officer) in a project that affected all 145+ agencies in the state. At the same time, I performed HIPAA security risk assessments for hospitals in Virginia, resourcePageQuoteTennessee, Texas, and Arizona. The variety of environments, business models, system implementation, and security requirements keeps me on my toes and the work always interesting.

Expand on your different roles in the IT industry (risk assessment expert, author, voice in social media).

One of the most influential efforts I ever pursued in the writing of my first book: The Security Risk Assessment Handbook. I knew a lot about risk assessments at the time but the research I did to create a textbook expanded my knowledge beyond what I would have ever received from simply performing the risk assessments.

As a recognized expert on security risk assessments, I am able to provide some insight on the process, the state of security in the industry, and how we can continue to improve our security postures as the threat environment continues to mature. Just as regulations and threats continue to evolve so too does my own risk assessment process every time I perform another risk assessment.

I share my thoughts, findings, and experiences through social media and conferences. As a profession, it is important that we share our experiences and continue to mature our tools and processes to secure the infrastructure that protects data assets.

Is your book, The Security Risk Assessment Handbook: A Complete Guide for Performing Security Risk Assessments, used for students pursuing an IT degree? If so, what information do they find most helpful?

My book was written specifically for the practitioner. Anyone who intends to understand how to perform an information security risk assessment (or even use the results of one) will gain a practical understanding of how to conduct a complete assessment. The book is used in many colleges and universities as either required or supplemental reading. What the student will gain is practical advice on how to actually perform an information security risk assessment. Most students are surprised by the detail of instruction in the book. I wrote the book because there was no such instruction available elsewhere.

How has your entrepreneurial spirit helped you become an expert in the cyber security field?

My entrepreneurial spirit has allowed me to pursue business plans and offer information security services that my previous employers or “the big guys” did not see coming or did not see enough profit in. I am able to create new services quickly and effectively when I see a potential need. For example, last year I created a new class on the NIST Cyber Security Framework to coincide with NIST’s release of this new framework. I was able to gain several new clients who quickly adopted the standard and were unable to find training anywhere else.

I am also able to specialize in areas that I feel are most needed and underserved. For example, this year I launched my “Black Diamond Initiative”. This is what I call expert-only services. Most organizations have the expertise in-house to develop and deliver most of their information security program elements… with two notable exceptions. The first exception is an objective and independent review of the controls they put in place (i.e., an information security risk assessment). The second exception is education and training. When organizations reach out to consultancies for either an assessment or certification training the most important element is the expertise of the actual consultant that gets assigned. Assessing risk or educating your people is no place to cut corners, so organizations should demand an expert – that’s what Lantego delivers. We only provide experts in the field (i.e., someone who has performed scores of risk assessments or trained thousands of CISSP candidates).

What do you find are the most challenging aspects of cyber security as a field?

Keeping up with changes. No one can be an expert in the entire field of information security. You need to pick your areas of expertise and then be diligent about keeping up. There is always a new tool, regulation, technique, breach, conference, or threat that your customers expect you not only to know about but to have an opinion and a solution.

Has the field of cyber security field changed since you entered it? If so, how?

The field has expanded greatly and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. It used to be that we all considered ourselves information security engineers. Now we are clearly divided as builders or busters, and then again in many different specialties such as forensics, web application code review, regulation compliance, and many more. The good news is that there is a lot of discovery yet to happen and this is a very exciting field.

In your opinion, is it an ideal time to go into IT or to become an IT specialist, and if so, why?

There are many types of jobs in both IT and IT specialties. If you have a desire to learn and push yourself, and if the thought of your field constantly expanding excites you, then I would advise you to pursue a specialty. It is not for everyone but for those that truly enjoy the challenge, you will find a career you truly enjoy.

Which skills do you think a person should build if they want to pursue a career in IT and cyber security?

Inherent skills include a thirst for knowledge, a desire to solve puzzles, and an analytical mind. If you have those, then throw yourself into the study of the basics: computer science, data analysis, programming, system design, privacy and security law. Once you understand the basics, pursue a position in a large company that allows you the freedom of lateral movement and encourages you to try new things. Pay attention to your interests and seek out experts. Let them know that you want to learn more about what they do. Continue this until you find your own special interest and then dig in.

What advice would you give to students pursuing a degree in IT or cyber security? How can students prepare themselves for the challenges?

Get involved in the cyber security community early. Many organizations such as ISSA (Information Systems Security Association), ISACA (Information Systems Audit and Control Association), and ISC2 (International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium) have student chapters; most security conferences have student rates and potentially even scholarships for qualified students. Attend meetings, go to conferences, even submit a paper. The earlier you get involved, the sooner you will be exposed to those areas that excite you and network with those that can help your career.


The experts interviewed for this article may be compensated to provide opinions on products, services, websites and various other topics. Even though the expert may receive compensation for this interview, the views, opinions, and positions expressed by the expert are his or hers alone, are not endorsed by, and do not necessarily reflect the views, opinions, and positions of EducationDynamics, LLC. EducationDynamics, LLC make no representations as to the accuracy, completeness, timeliness, suitability, or validity of any information in this article and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in or resulting from this information or any losses or damages arising from its display or use.

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